Stall Operations Activation Job in pune

Established in 2007, Fulcrum is one of the leading brand activation and promotions companies, Stall Operations Activation Job in pune and  in india, leading the way in brand activations, promotions, experiential events and field marketing. Our services are offered all over the country, including major cities such as Mumbai, Pune, Delhi and Other Metro City.
We have worked across local and international brands, spanning a multitude of industries, throughout across india. Each year Fulcrum performs in the region of many activations and promotions, and has a database of more than 6 000 brand ambassadors in over 10 locations.

fulcrum has developed a unique four-tier brand ambassador rating platform, with specific requirements per level – covering communication and selling skills, personal presentation, and financial and computer literacy. This rating platform helps create an ideal match between brand ambassador and brand, and within the specifications of your marketing strategy and budget.

The Fulcrum is a corporate social investment initiative aimed at finding and developing talent and creating jobs. It assists young brand ambassadors in acquiring and improving a range of skills, including communication and selling skills, personal presentation and grooming, financial literacy and basic technology skills. The Academy also covers career planning so that skills are developed in line with a career pathway.

Fulcrum is a progressive & creative organization, specializing in SalesMarketingBrand Promotions, Brand Activities Professional in pimpri chinchwad. The organization started up in Maharashtra in 2007. As a results-based company, we have provided our clients with a competitive advantage over the last 9 years.

We have managed to bridge the gap between Sales & Marketing. Many companies spend huge budgets on marketing strategies with no real Return On Investment (ROI). Through our approach, we have optimized both of these functions, creating lower cost per acquisition, and maximizing the ROI.

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Marketing tips, ideas, tricks, advice

 

Non-Traditional Marketing Tactics to Boost Brand Awareness

Using marketing strategies to boost brand awareness means that your business will always be top of mind. However, if you are not having much luck with the more traditional methods, it may be time to explore a few other non-traditional tactics to see if they translate well for your brand. Here are the Tradeway team’s top choices:

Let’s Get Tangible
At the moment, the focus for most marketing experts is to make their presence known online through social media marketing and other digital methods. While this can lead to a lot more brand awareness, nowadays, it is very difficult to stand out. It has all been done before.

“One way in which to really grab your potential customers’ attention is to forego the digital route for a while and to start focusing on how to provide the customer with a more tangible, old-fashioned experience that fits in with your brand and its product offering. Sending them a box of chocolates or a hand-written note can make all the difference when it comes to connecting with them on a more personal level than what online marketing allows for,” comments.

Tell Real Stories
When piecing together a new campaign, stop wondering what to do to stir emotion within your target audience, make them stop and listen, or get a reaction from them… and start telling real stories instead. In doing so, emotion comes built-in and is much more authentic and believable. This is sure to make it easier for your potential customers to connect with your brand.

Play a Bigger Part
Stop using stock images on your Instagram. Stop hiring attractive MCs to host your brand’s events. It is time to start involving yourself and your staff more. By getting involved with your audience directly, and giving them the chance to get to know the brains behind your brand, they are much more likely to feel more connected to you. Be your own brand ambassador and your own brand influencer and your experiential marketing strategies will take off on their own with very little effort. Once again, authenticity is the name of the game!

Would you like assistance when it comes to mastering the art of marketing? Allow the Fulcrum team to lend a hand. Specialising in experiential and field marketing, as well as creative activations, we will have everyone talking about your business in a flash! Contact us today to find out more.

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Interactive advertising, door2door marketing, Corporate Activities, Branding Retail Outlets Activity, Medicines Marketing, retail merchandising system, agency in bosari

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BTL refers to a series of marketing techniques known collectively as below-the-line marketing. Below-the-line marketing includes direct marketing by mail or email, sales promotion, marketing communications, exhibitions and telemarketing. Above-the-line marketing refers to advertising in media such as print, cinema, radio, television, outdoor posters and the Internet. Marketing campaigns that use both above-the-line and below-the-line techniques are known as through-the-line campaigns.

Agency Remuneration
The terms above-the-line and below-the-line originally referred to the way advertising agencies were remunerated for their services. Agencies received commission from the media in return for placing advertisements. The level of commission was sufficient to cover the costs of creating and producing the content for advertisements, as well as providing the agency with a fee and profit contribution. Agencies retained the commission and clients received the creative and production costs free. Because no commission was available on non-media activities, agencies charged clients for all creative and production costs.

Below-The-Line Agencies
The basis of agency remuneration has evolved, and advertising agencies now base their charges on a combination of fees and retained commission. However, clients have recognized the importance of below-the-line marketing and work with companies that offer specific services, such as direct marketing agencies, sales promotion agencies, marketing communications consultancies and telemarketing agencies.

Precision
Companies use below-the-line campaigns to reach audiences that are difficult or costly to contact through advertising media. A direct marketing campaign, for example, targeting a selected group of key customers with a limited-time offer represents a precise form of marketing with minimal waste. A sales promotion campaign offering discounts on a product in a single retail chain drives consumers to a series of defined locations, allowing precise measurement of the campaign’s effectiveness.

Integration
Combining above -the-line and below-the-line techniques in a single, integrated campaign can improve marketing effectiveness. An advertising campaign to launch a new product, combined with a retail incentive program and an in-store consumer promotion will encourage retailers to carry additional stocks of the advertised product. Through-the-line campaigns are most effective when advertising and below-the-line content use the same creative approach and communicate consistent messages across all media.

Multi-Channel Marketing
The increasing importance of social media is focusing attention on communicating with customers though multiple channels, rather than relying on individual above-the-line or below-the-line channels. Marketers also recognize the importance of building dialog with customers, rather than marketing through one-way communications.

 

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What Are the Different Types of Advertising?

Advertisers pay for advertising to accomplish a wide array of goals. Ad objectives generally boil down to long-term branding communication or short-term direct response advertising. Branding is about building and maintaining a reputation for your company that distinguishes it in the marketplace. Sales promos are short-term inducements to drive revenue or cash flow. Based on your company’s objectives, budget and target audience, you normally advertise through one or more types of media. Calculating your return on investment in dollars is difficult, but you need to establish measurable goals, such as a percentage increase in awareness, to evaluate success.

Broadcast Media
Television and radio are two traditional broadcast media long used in advertising. Television offers creative opportunities, a dynamic message and wide audience reach. It is typically the most expensive medium to advertise through, though. Because local affiliated stations normally serve a wide local audience, you also have to deal with waste when trying to target a small town marketplace. TV watchers normally have a negative attitude toward commercials and many have DVRs at their fingertips. Radio and TV both have fleeting messages, meaning they disappear once the commercial spot ends. Radio is relatively affordable for small businesses and allows for repetition and frequency. You don’t have the visual element of TV and you have to deal with a distracted audience, since most listeners are driving.

Print Media
Magazines and newspapers are the two traditional print media. Magazines offer a highly selective audience who is generally interested in ads closely related to the topic of the magazine. Visual imagery is also stronger in magazines than newspapers. You have little wasted since magazines are very niche and you can target a narrow customer segment. On the downside, magazines are costly and require long lead times, which limits timely promotions. They also have limited audience reach. Newspapers are very affordable for local businesses and allow you to target a geographic segment if you have a universal product or service. Newspapers are also viewed as a credible medium, which enhances ad acceptance. You can usually get an ad placed within a day or two of purchase. Declining circulation, a short shelf life and limited visual creativity are drawbacks.

Support Media
Support media include several options for message delivery than normally add to or expand campaigns delivered through more traditional media. Billboards, transits, bus benches, aerial, directories and trade publications are common support media. Each has pros and cons, but collectively, they offer ways to reach a wider audience in a local or regional market or to increase frequency of message exposure to targeted market segments.

Direct Marketing
Direct marketing is an interactive approach to advertising that has picked up in usage in the early 21st century. It includes direct mail, email and telemarketing. These are direct response efforts to create an ongoing dialogue or interaction with customers. Weekly or monthly email newsletters, for instance, allow you to keep your brand, products and other messages in front of prospects and customers. Telemarketing is a way to survey customers and offer new products, upgrades or renewals. Direct mail is the most common format of direct marketing where you send mailers or postcards to targeted customers promoting products, deals or promotions. Direct marketing has become more prominent because it allows for ease in tracking customer response rates and helps advertisers better measure return on investment.

Product Placement
Another newer advertising technique is product placement. This is where you offer compensation to a TV show, movie, video game or theme park to use your product while entertaining audiences. You could pay a TV show, for instance, to depict your product being used and discussed positive in a particular scene. This ad method is a way for companies to integrate ads with entertainment since customers have found ways to avoid messages delivered through more conventional media.

Internet
The Internet is used by online and offline companies to promote products or services. Banner ads, pop up ads, text ads and paid search placements are common forms. Banner, pop up and text ads are ways to present an image or message on a publisher’s website or on a number of websites through a third-party platform like Google’s Adwords program. Paid search placements, also known as cost-per-click advertising, is where you bid a certain amount to present your link and text message to users of search engines like Google and Yahoo!

Social Media
Businesses can also create different target groups, and send ads on social media platforms to users that would be most interested in their products and services. Targeting options can include targeting based on geographic location, buying tendencies, and other consumer behavior. One effective method of placing social media ads is known as retargeting, which focuses on website visitors that left without buying a product or service, or without signing up for some type of free offer like subscribing to a newsletter. Businesses can place a pixel on the visitor’s browser, and send targeted ads to that visitor as he or she browses other websites. Sponsored ads work in a similar way to retargeting, but the difference is that businesses pay to have these ads appear on specific websites that their target audience is likely to visit.

 

834 Benefits of Sales Promotion

A successful promotion has the ability to nurture relationships with consumers through retention and engagement. Promotions can often shape the characteristics of brands, for example, McDonald?s Monopoly board is something

Brand Activities Best sellers in pune, Brand Marketing Service Provider Agency in pune, Stall Operations Activation Job in pune, Brand Activation agency in Guruwar Peth, Brand Activation Services in Mundhva, Brand Activation Companies in Shaniwar Peth,

 

INTRODUCTION OF SALES PROMOTION
Sales promotion consists of a diverse collection of incentive tools, mostly short term, designed to stimulated quicker and/or greater purchase of particular product/service or the trend. Sales promotion is a process of persuading of sales to potential customer to buy the product.
The topic is about the sales promotion activity that makes awareness of the product of the company. The topic itself describe that how to increase the sales growth of the company product and it is also about the make awareness to the customer about the company products.
Sales promotion plays a very important role in the company. So in the current context every company makes sales promotion in different ways like advertisement by media, news paper , magazine.
Sales promotion is an important component of a small medium and large business’s overall marketing strategy, along with advertising, public relations, and personal selling. The American Marketing Association (AMA) defines sales promotion as “media and non-media marketing pressure applied for a predetermined, limited period of time in order to stimulate trial, increase consumer demand, or improve product quality.” But this definition does not capture all the elements of modern sales promotion. One should add that effective sales promotion increases the basic value of a product for a limited time and directly stimulates consumer purchasing, selling effectiveness, or the effort of the sales force. It can be used to inform, persuade, and remind target customers about the business and its marketing mix. Some common types of sales promotion include samples, coupons, sweepstakes, contests, in-store displays, trade shows, price-off deals, premiums, and rebates.
Businesses can target sales promotions at three different audiences: consumers, resellers, and the company’s own sales force. Sales promotion acts as a competitive weapon by providing an extra incentive for the target audience to purchase or support one brand over another. It is particularly effective in spurring product trial and unplanned purchases.
Most marketers believe that a given product or service has an established perceived price or value, and they use sales promotion to change this price-value relationship by increasing the value and/or lowering the price. Compared to the other components of the marketing mix (advertising, publicity, and personal selling), sales promotion usually operates on a shorter time line, uses a more rational appeal, returns a tangible or real value, fosters an immediate sale, and contributes highly to profitability.
In determining the relative importance to place on sales promotion in the overall marketing mix, a small business should consider its marketing budget, the stage of the product in its life cycle, the nature of competition in the market, the target of the promotion, and the nature of the product. For example, sales promotion and direct mail are particularly attractive alternatives when the marketing budget is limited, as it is for many small businesses. In addition, sales promotion can be an effective tool in a highly competitive market, when the objective is to convince retailers to carry a product or influence consumers to select it over those of competitors. Similarly, sales promotion is often used in the growth and maturity stages of the product life cycle to stimulate consumers and resellers to choose that product over the competition—rather than in the introduction stage, when mass advertising to build awareness might be more important. Finally, sales promotion tends to work best when it is applied to impulse items whose features can be judged at the point of purchase, rather than more complex, expensive items that might require hands-on demonstration.
Back in 1950s, it was said that doing business without sales promotion is like winking at a girl in the dark; you know you what you are doing, but nobody else does. The message was: crowded scenario of multiple ads even winking in broad daylight goes unnoticed. Since everyone is sales promotion, the idea is to do it with innovation ‘Come on, turn on the light, it pays to sales promotion. Today, in this complex world amidst heavy rush or everything, having a densely.

Sales promotion is of immense utility both to large and small business. There can be no doubt that sales promotion efforts would result in creation of additional sales. All forms of promotion of sale of goods is in one way or the other, supported by extensive advertising campaign. It is not possible to imagine survival of any business, which is in the business of “make and sell” in the absence of advertising efforts. Advertising has extended its coverage to include non-business enterprises also e.g.. Public Water Works advertises the need to preserve precious water and to cultivate the habit of drinking clean water free from any form of pollution. Countless illustrations can be provided wherein non-business enterprises have recognised the importance of advertising and their use it as a tool to promote ideas and services.

Sales promotion is an economic activity and it generates employment. Thousands of men and women are directly or indirectly, employed in professional sales promotion. sales promotion is an economic proposition. People who invest their money in sales promotion anticipate positive results. Hence, sales promotion must be result-oriented. Every newspaper or magazine survives on the advertisements that it receives. sales promotion are definite source of revenue to the publishers. Because of the advertisements inserted in newspapers and magazines, they are sold at lower price, which can be afforded by the public. Advertising is of paramount importance because it creates better-informed public by making available innumerable publications at an affordable price. Considering the response that advertisements generate, it can be stated that “advertising does not cost too much”.
In older to cut down production cost per unit there is a need to increase the total sales turnover. When overall sales increase, production cost per unit is automatically slashed and more people buy the goods. Apart from towering production costs, advertising also pays for entertainment and education through use of media like radio and TV.
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Consumer is the king in the market. He cannot be compelled to buy anything. At the most, he can be persuaded to patronize a certain brand. It is here that advertising plays a prominent role.
There is no standard format to be followed to make advertising liked by every person. Advertising is a creative field. Individual likes and dislikes determine success of advertising or its failure. Advertising scores over personal selling because it provides freedom of choice to the consumer. Decision to make purchases is independently arrived at by the consumers. No civilized society can record constant progress and ensure better standard of living to its people in the absence of information and education provided by advertising
CONSUMER PROMOTIONS
Consumer sales promotions are steered toward the ultimate product users—typically individual shoppers in the local market—but the same techniques can be used to promote products sold by one business to another, such as computer systems, cleaning supplies, and machinery. In contrast, trade sales promotions target resellers—wholesalers and retailers—who carry the marketer’s product. Following are some of the key techniques used in consumer-oriented sales promotions.
PRICE DEALS: A consumer price deal saves the buyer money when a product is purchased. The main types of price deals include discounts, bonus pack deals, refunds or rebates, and coupons. Price deals are usually intended to encourage trial use of a new product or line extension, to recruit new buyers for a mature product, or to convince existing customers to increase their purchases, accelerate their use, or purchase multiple units. Price deals work most effectively when price is the consumer’s foremost criterion or when brand loyalty is low.
Buyers may learn about price discounts either at the point of sale or through advertising. At the point of sale, price reductions may be posted on the package, on signs near the product, or in storefront windows. Many types of advertisements can be used to notify consumers of upcoming discounts, including fliers and newspaper and television ads.
Price discounts are especially common in the food industry, where local supermarkets run weekly specials. Price discounts may be initiated by the manufacturer, the retailer, or the distributor. For instance, a manufacturer may “pre-price” a product and then convince the retailer to participate in this short-term discount through extra incentives. For price reduction strategies to be effective, they must have the support of all distributors in the channel. Existing customers perceive discounts as rewards and often respond by buying in larger quantities.
Another type of price deal is the bonus pack or banded pack. When a bonus pack is offered, an extra amount of the product is free when a standard size of the product is bought at the regular price. This technique is routinely used in the marketing of cleaning products, food, and health and beauty aids to introduce a new or larger size. A bonus pack rewards present users but may have little appeal to users of competitive brands. A banded pack offer is when two or more units of a product are sold at a reduction of the regular single-unit price. Sometimes the products are physically banded together, such as in toothbrush and toothpaste offers.
A refund or rebate promotion is an offer by a marketer to return a certain amount of money when the product is purchased alone or in combination with other products. Refunds aim to increase the quantity or frequency of purchase, to encourage customers to “load up” on the product. This strategy dampens competition by temporarily taking consumers out of the market, stimulates the purchase of postponable goods such as major appliances, and creates on-shelf excitement by encouraging special displays. Refunds and rebates are generally viewed as a reward for purchase, and they appear to build brand loyalty rather than diminish it.
Coupons are legal certificates offered by manufacturers and retailers. They grant specified savings on selected products when presented for redemption at the point of purchase. Manufacturers sustain the cost of advertising and distributing their coupons, redeeming their face values, and paying retailers a handling fee. Retailers who offer double or triple the amount of the coupon shoulder the extra cost. Retailers who offer their own coupons incur the total cost, including paying the face value. In this way, retail coupons are equivalent to a cents-off deal.
Manufacturers disseminate coupons in many ways. They may be delivered directly by mail, dropped door to door, or distributed through a central location such as a shopping mall. Coupons may also be distributed through the media—magazines, newspapers, Sunday supplements, or free-standing inserts (FSI) in newspapers. Coupons can be inserted into, attached to, or printed on a package, or they may be distributed by a retailer who uses them to generate store traffic or to tie in with a manufacturer’s promotional tactic. Retailer-sponsored coupons are typically distributed through print advertising or at the point of sale. Sometimes, though, specialty retailers or newly opened retailers will distribute coupons door to door or through direct mail.
CONTESTS/SWEEPSTAKES: The main difference between contests and sweepstakes is that contests require entrants to perform a task or demonstrate a skill that is judged in order to be deemed a winner, while sweepstakes involve a random drawing or chance contest that may or may not have an entry requirement. At one time, contests were more commonly used as sales promotions, mostly due to legal restrictions on gambling that many marketers feared might apply to sweepstakes. But the use of sweepstakes as a promotional tactic has grown dramatically in recent decades, partly because of legal changes and partly because of their lower cost. Administering a contest once cost about $350 per thousand entries, compared to just $2.75 to $3.75 per thousand entries in a sweepstake. Furthermore, participation in contests is very low compared to sweepstakes, since they require some sort of skill or ability.
SPECIAL EVENTS: According to the consulting firm International Events Group (IEG), businesses spend over $2 billion annually to link their products with everything from jazz festivals to golf tournaments to stock car races. In fact, large companies like RJR Nabisco and Anheuser-Busch have special divisions that handle nothing but special events. Special events marketing offers a number of advantages. First, events tend to attract a homogeneous audience that is very appreciative of the sponsors. Therefore, if a product fits well with the event and its audience, the impact of the sales promotion will be high. Second, event sponsorship often builds support among employees—who may receive acknowledgment for their participation—and within the trade. Finally, compared to producing a series of ads, event management is relatively simple. Many elements of event sponsorship are prepackaged and reusable, such as booths, displays, and ads. Special events marketing is available to small businesses, as well, through sponsorship of events on the community level.
PREMIUM: A premium is tangible compensation that is given as incentive for performing a particular act—usually buying a product. The premium may be given for free, or may be offered to consumers for a significantly reduced price. Some examples of premiums include receiving a prize in a cereal box or a free garden tool for visiting the grand opening of a hardware store. Incentives that are given for free at the time of purchase are called direct premiums. These offers provide instant gratification, plus there is no confusion about returning coupons or box tops, or saving bar codes or proofs of purchase.
Other types of direct premiums include traffic builders, door openers, and referral premiums. The garden tool is an example of a traffic-builder premium—an incentive to lure a prospective buyer to a store. A door-opener premium is directed to customers at home or to business people in their offices. For example, a homeowner may receive a free clock radio for allowing an insurance agent to enter their home and listening to his sales pitch. Similarly, an electronics manufacturer might offer free software to an office manager who agrees to an on-site demonstration. The final category of direct premiums, referral premiums, rewards the purchaser for referring the seller to other possible customers.
Mail premiums, unlike direct premiums, require the customer to perform some act in order to obtain a premium through return mail. An example might be a limited edition toy car offered by a marketer in exchange for one or more proofs-of-purchase and a payment covering the cost of the item plus handling. The premium is still valuable to the consumer because they cannot readily buy the item for the same amount.

CONTINUITY PROGRAMS: Continuity programs retain brand users over a long time period by offering ongoing motivation or incentives. Continuity programs demand that consumers keep buying the product in order to get the premium in the future. Trading stamps, popularized in the 1950s and 1960s, are prime examples. Consumers usually received one stamp for every dime spent at a participating store. The stamp company provided redemption centers where the stamps were traded for merchandise. A catalog listing the quantity of stamps required for each item was available at the participating stores. Today, airlines’ frequent-flyer clubs, hotels’ frequent-traveler plans, retailers’ frequent-shopper programs, and bonus-paying credit cards are common continuity programs. When competing brands have reached parity in terms of price and service, continuity programs sometimes prove a deciding factor among those competitors. By rewarding long-standing customers for their loyalty, continuity programs also reduce the threat of new competitors entering a market.

SAMPLING: A sign of a successful marketer is getting the product into the hands of the consumer. Sometimes, particularly when a product is new or is not a market leader, an effective strategy is giving a sample product to the consumer, either free or for a small fee. But in order for sampling to change people’s future purchase decisions, the product must have benefits or features that will be obvious during the trial.
There are several means of disseminating samples to consumers. The most popular has been through the mail, but increases in postage costs and packaging requirements have made this method less attractive. An alternative is door-to-door distribution, particularly when the items are bulky and when reputable distribution organizations exist. This method permits selective sampling of neighborhoods, dwellings, or even people. Another method is distributing samples in conjunction with advertising. An ad may include a coupon that the consumer can mail in for the product, or it may include an address or phone number for ordering. Direct sampling can be achieved through prime media using scratch-and-sniff cards and slim foil pouches, or through retailers using special displays or a person hired to hand out samples to passing customers. Though this last technique may build goodwill for the retailer, some retailers resent the inconvenience and require high payments for their cooperation.
A final form of sample distribution deals with specialty types of sampling. For instance, some companies specialize in packing samples together for delivery to homogeneous consumer groups, such as newlyweds, new parents, students, or tourists. Such packages may be delivered at hospitals, hotels, or dormitories and include a number of different types of products.

 

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Brand Activities Best sellers in pune, Brand Marketing Service Provider Agency in pune, Stall Operations Activation Job in pune, Brand Activation agency in Guruwar Peth, Brand Activation Services in Mundhva, Brand Activation Companies in Shaniwar Peth,

Brand Marketing Service Provider Agency in pune

Brand Activations & Promotions Company

Established in 2007, Fulcrum is one of the leading brand activation and promotions companies, Brand Marketing Service Provider Agency in pune and  in india, leading the way in brand activations, promotions, experiential events and field marketing. Our services are offered all over the country, including major cities such as Mumbai, Pune, Delhi and Other Metro City.
We have worked across local and international brands, spanning a multitude of industries, throughout across india. Each year Fulcrum performs in the region of many activations and promotions, and has a database of more than 6 000 brand ambassadors in over 10 locations.

fulcrum has developed a unique four-tier brand ambassador rating platform, with specific requirements per level – covering communication and selling skills, personal presentation, and financial and computer literacy. This rating platform helps create an ideal match between brand ambassador and brand, and within the specifications of your marketing strategy and budget.

The Fulcrum is a corporate social investment initiative aimed at finding and developing talent and creating jobs. It assists young brand ambassadors in acquiring and improving a range of skills, including communication and selling skills, personal presentation and grooming, financial literacy and basic technology skills. The Academy also covers career planning so that skills are developed in line with a career pathway.

Fulcrum is a progressive & creative organization, specializing in SalesMarketingBrand Promotions, Brand Activities Professional in pimpri chinchwad. The organization started up in Maharashtra in 2007. As a results-based company, we have provided our clients with a competitive advantage over the last 9 years.

We have managed to bridge the gap between Sales & Marketing. Many companies spend huge budgets on marketing strategies with no real Return On Investment (ROI). Through our approach, we have optimized both of these functions, creating lower cost per acquisition, and maximizing the ROI.

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Marketing tips, ideas, tricks, advice

 

 

Costly Mistakes that Could Sink Your Experiential Marketing Event

There’s a lot of planning and money that goes into hosting an experiential marketing event, so it makes sense for business owners to expect to see some pleasing results in exchange for their efforts. Below, we examine 4 different mistakes that you could be making, all of which will cost you the results that you expect and deserve.

Not Paying Attention to the Desires of the Consumer
If you’re simply copying an experiential marketing idea from a competitor or another brand without really thinking about what sort of experiences your unique target market desires, the chances are high that your efforts will fall flat.

“Having an intimate understanding of one’s consumer is the first and most important step when it comes to planning an experiential marketing event or campaign. The experience that you’re going to provide needs to resonate strongly with the right demographic in order to have a lasting effect,”

Not Thinking Holistically
When planning an experiential marketing event, it is imperative that you think about the bigger picture in terms of your other marketing efforts, and your marketing plan as a whole. Do you currently have a campaign on the go? Perhaps your focus has been on promoting a new product or special? You need to think holistically and make sure that your event ties in with everything else in order to really make the most of your budget.

Not Providing Enough Opportunity for the Audience to Get Involved
Remember, the whole point of hosting an experiential marketing event is to make it possible for the guests to interact with your brand and your team. While talks, workshops and motivational speeches all have their place, you also need to make sure that you allow for plenty of interaction in other ways. According to research, the best techniques include giving away free samples and involving guests directly in demonstrations.

Not Making Use of Influencers
Utilising relevant influencers via social media is a wonderful way in which to promote your upcoming event.

“While it may cost a little initially, the pay-out at the event will be well worth it. Influencers who are well-known by those who would be interested in your brand and what it has to offer can help you to double your turn-out, and then some!” says Michelle.

Would you like some assistance when it comes to your company’s experiential marketing efforts? You can always rely on the field marketing, experiential marketing and activations experts at Fulcrum. For more information about us and what we do, do not hesitate to get in touch.

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door2door marketing, Corporate Activities, Branding Retail Outlets Activity, Medicines Marketing, retail merchandising system, agency in bosari

Brand Activations  in pune ,  Promotions Company in pune, 

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BTL refers to a series of marketing techniques known collectively as below-the-line marketing. Below-the-line marketing includes direct marketing by mail or email, sales promotion, marketing communications, exhibitions and telemarketing. Above-the-line marketing refers to advertising in media such as print, cinema, radio, television, outdoor posters and the Internet. Marketing campaigns that use both above-the-line and below-the-line techniques are known as through-the-line campaigns.

Agency Remuneration
The terms above-the-line and below-the-line originally referred to the way advertising agencies were remunerated for their services. Agencies received commission from the media in return for placing advertisements. The level of commission was sufficient to cover the costs of creating and producing the content for advertisements, as well as providing the agency with a fee and profit contribution. Agencies retained the commission and clients received the creative and production costs free. Because no commission was available on non-media activities, agencies charged clients for all creative and production costs.

Below-The-Line Agencies
The basis of agency remuneration has evolved, and advertising agencies now base their charges on a combination of fees and retained commission. However, clients have recognized the importance of below-the-line marketing and work with companies that offer specific services, such as direct marketing agencies, sales promotion agencies, marketing communications consultancies and telemarketing agencies.

Precision
Companies use below-the-line campaigns to reach audiences that are difficult or costly to contact through advertising media. A direct marketing campaign, for example, targeting a selected group of key customers with a limited-time offer represents a precise form of marketing with minimal waste. A sales promotion campaign offering discounts on a product in a single retail chain drives consumers to a series of defined locations, allowing precise measurement of the campaign’s effectiveness.

Integration
Combining above -the-line and below-the-line techniques in a single, integrated campaign can improve marketing effectiveness. An advertising campaign to launch a new product, combined with a retail incentive program and an in-store consumer promotion will encourage retailers to carry additional stocks of the advertised product. Through-the-line campaigns are most effective when advertising and below-the-line content use the same creative approach and communicate consistent messages across all media.

Multi-Channel Marketing
The increasing importance of social media is focusing attention on communicating with customers though multiple channels, rather than relying on individual above-the-line or below-the-line channels. Marketers also recognize the importance of building dialog with customers, rather than marketing through one-way communications.

 

What Are the Different Types of Advertising?

Advertisers pay for advertising to accomplish a wide array of goals. Ad objectives generally boil down to long-term branding communication or short-term direct response advertising. Branding is about building and maintaining a reputation for your company that distinguishes it in the marketplace. Sales promos are short-term inducements to drive revenue or cash flow. Based on your company’s objectives, budget and target audience, you normally advertise through one or more types of media. Calculating your return on investment in dollars is difficult, but you need to establish measurable goals, such as a percentage increase in awareness, to evaluate success.

Broadcast Media
Television and radio are two traditional broadcast media long used in advertising. Television offers creative opportunities, a dynamic message and wide audience reach. It is typically the most expensive medium to advertise through, though. Because local affiliated stations normally serve a wide local audience, you also have to deal with waste when trying to target a small town marketplace. TV watchers normally have a negative attitude toward commercials and many have DVRs at their fingertips. Radio and TV both have fleeting messages, meaning they disappear once the commercial spot ends. Radio is relatively affordable for small businesses and allows for repetition and frequency. You don’t have the visual element of TV and you have to deal with a distracted audience, since most listeners are driving.

Print Media
Magazines and newspapers are the two traditional print media. Magazines offer a highly selective audience who is generally interested in ads closely related to the topic of the magazine. Visual imagery is also stronger in magazines than newspapers. You have little wasted since magazines are very niche and you can target a narrow customer segment. On the downside, magazines are costly and require long lead times, which limits timely promotions. They also have limited audience reach. Newspapers are very affordable for local businesses and allow you to target a geographic segment if you have a universal product or service. Newspapers are also viewed as a credible medium, which enhances ad acceptance. You can usually get an ad placed within a day or two of purchase. Declining circulation, a short shelf life and limited visual creativity are drawbacks.

Support Media
Support media include several options for message delivery than normally add to or expand campaigns delivered through more traditional media. Billboards, transits, bus benches, aerial, directories and trade publications are common support media. Each has pros and cons, but collectively, they offer ways to reach a wider audience in a local or regional market or to increase frequency of message exposure to targeted market segments.

Direct Marketing
Direct marketing is an interactive approach to advertising that has picked up in usage in the early 21st century. It includes direct mail, email and telemarketing. These are direct response efforts to create an ongoing dialogue or interaction with customers. Weekly or monthly email newsletters, for instance, allow you to keep your brand, products and other messages in front of prospects and customers. Telemarketing is a way to survey customers and offer new products, upgrades or renewals. Direct mail is the most common format of direct marketing where you send mailers or postcards to targeted customers promoting products, deals or promotions. Direct marketing has become more prominent because it allows for ease in tracking customer response rates and helps advertisers better measure return on investment.

Product Placement
Another newer advertising technique is product placement. This is where you offer compensation to a TV show, movie, video game or theme park to use your product while entertaining audiences. You could pay a TV show, for instance, to depict your product being used and discussed positive in a particular scene. This ad method is a way for companies to integrate ads with entertainment since customers have found ways to avoid messages delivered through more conventional media.

Internet
The Internet is used by online and offline companies to promote products or services. Banner ads, pop up ads, text ads and paid search placements are common forms. Banner, pop up and text ads are ways to present an image or message on a publisher’s website or on a number of websites through a third-party platform like Google’s Adwords program. Paid search placements, also known as cost-per-click advertising, is where you bid a certain amount to present your link and text message to users of search engines like Google and Yahoo!

Social Media
Businesses can also create different target groups, and send ads on social media platforms to users that would be most interested in their products and services. Targeting options can include targeting based on geographic location, buying tendencies, and other consumer behavior. One effective method of placing social media ads is known as retargeting, which focuses on website visitors that left without buying a product or service, or without signing up for some type of free offer like subscribing to a newsletter. Businesses can place a pixel on the visitor’s browser, and send targeted ads to that visitor as he or she browses other websites. Sponsored ads work in a similar way to retargeting, but the difference is that businesses pay to have these ads appear on specific websites that their target audience is likely to visit.

 

834 Benefits of Sales Promotion

A successful promotion has the ability to nurture relationships with consumers through retention and engagement. Promotions can often shape the characteristics of brands, for example, McDonald?s Monopoly board is something

 

INTRODUCTION OF SALES PROMOTION
Sales promotion consists of a diverse collection of incentive tools, mostly short term, designed to stimulated quicker and/or greater purchase of particular product/service or the trend. Sales promotion is a process of persuading of sales to potential customer to buy the product.
The topic is about the sales promotion activity that makes awareness of the product of the company. The topic itself describe that how to increase the sales growth of the company product and it is also about the make awareness to the customer about the company products.
Sales promotion plays a very important role in the company. So in the current context every company makes sales promotion in different ways like advertisement by media, news paper , magazine.
Sales promotion is an important component of a small medium and large business’s overall marketing strategy, along with advertising, public relations, and personal selling. The American Marketing Association (AMA) defines sales promotion as “media and non-media marketing pressure applied for a predetermined, limited period of time in order to stimulate trial, increase consumer demand, or improve product quality.” But this definition does not capture all the elements of modern sales promotion. One should add that effective sales promotion increases the basic value of a product for a limited time and directly stimulates consumer purchasing, selling effectiveness, or the effort of the sales force. It can be used to inform, persuade, and remind target customers about the business and its marketing mix. Some common types of sales promotion include samples, coupons, sweepstakes, contests, in-store displays, trade shows, price-off deals, premiums, and rebates.
Businesses can target sales promotions at three different audiences: consumers, resellers, and the company’s own sales force. Sales promotion acts as a competitive weapon by providing an extra incentive for the target audience to purchase or support one brand over another. It is particularly effective in spurring product trial and unplanned purchases.
Most marketers believe that a given product or service has an established perceived price or value, and they use sales promotion to change this price-value relationship by increasing the value and/or lowering the price. Compared to the other components of the marketing mix (advertising, publicity, and personal selling), sales promotion usually operates on a shorter time line, uses a more rational appeal, returns a tangible or real value, fosters an immediate sale, and contributes highly to profitability.
In determining the relative importance to place on sales promotion in the overall marketing mix, a small business should consider its marketing budget, the stage of the product in its life cycle, the nature of competition in the market, the target of the promotion, and the nature of the product. For example, sales promotion and direct mail are particularly attractive alternatives when the marketing budget is limited, as it is for many small businesses. In addition, sales promotion can be an effective tool in a highly competitive market, when the objective is to convince retailers to carry a product or influence consumers to select it over those of competitors. Similarly, sales promotion is often used in the growth and maturity stages of the product life cycle to stimulate consumers and resellers to choose that product over the competition—rather than in the introduction stage, when mass advertising to build awareness might be more important. Finally, sales promotion tends to work best when it is applied to impulse items whose features can be judged at the point of purchase, rather than more complex, expensive items that might require hands-on demonstration.
Back in 1950s, it was said that doing business without sales promotion is like winking at a girl in the dark; you know you what you are doing, but nobody else does. The message was: crowded scenario of multiple ads even winking in broad daylight goes unnoticed. Since everyone is sales promotion, the idea is to do it with innovation ‘Come on, turn on the light, it pays to sales promotion. Today, in this complex world amidst heavy rush or everything, having a densely.

Sales promotion is of immense utility both to large and small business. There can be no doubt that sales promotion efforts would result in creation of additional sales. All forms of promotion of sale of goods is in one way or the other, supported by extensive advertising campaign. It is not possible to imagine survival of any business, which is in the business of “make and sell” in the absence of advertising efforts. Advertising has extended its coverage to include non-business enterprises also e.g.. Public Water Works advertises the need to preserve precious water and to cultivate the habit of drinking clean water free from any form of pollution. Countless illustrations can be provided wherein non-business enterprises have recognised the importance of advertising and their use it as a tool to promote ideas and services.

Sales promotion is an economic activity and it generates employment. Thousands of men and women are directly or indirectly, employed in professional sales promotion. sales promotion is an economic proposition. People who invest their money in sales promotion anticipate positive results. Hence, sales promotion must be result-oriented. Every newspaper or magazine survives on the advertisements that it receives. sales promotion are definite source of revenue to the publishers. Because of the advertisements inserted in newspapers and magazines, they are sold at lower price, which can be afforded by the public. Advertising is of paramount importance because it creates better-informed public by making available innumerable publications at an affordable price. Considering the response that advertisements generate, it can be stated that “advertising does not cost too much”.
In older to cut down production cost per unit there is a need to increase the total sales turnover. When overall sales increase, production cost per unit is automatically slashed and more people buy the goods. Apart from towering production costs, advertising also pays for entertainment and education through use of media like radio and TV.
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Consumer is the king in the market. He cannot be compelled to buy anything. At the most, he can be persuaded to patronize a certain brand. It is here that advertising plays a prominent role.
There is no standard format to be followed to make advertising liked by every person. Advertising is a creative field. Individual likes and dislikes determine success of advertising or its failure. Advertising scores over personal selling because it provides freedom of choice to the consumer. Decision to make purchases is independently arrived at by the consumers. No civilized society can record constant progress and ensure better standard of living to its people in the absence of information and education provided by advertising
CONSUMER PROMOTIONS
Consumer sales promotions are steered toward the ultimate product users—typically individual shoppers in the local market—but the same techniques can be used to promote products sold by one business to another, such as computer systems, cleaning supplies, and machinery. In contrast, trade sales promotions target resellers—wholesalers and retailers—who carry the marketer’s product. Following are some of the key techniques used in consumer-oriented sales promotions.
PRICE DEALS: A consumer price deal saves the buyer money when a product is purchased. The main types of price deals include discounts, bonus pack deals, refunds or rebates, and coupons. Price deals are usually intended to encourage trial use of a new product or line extension, to recruit new buyers for a mature product, or to convince existing customers to increase their purchases, accelerate their use, or purchase multiple units. Price deals work most effectively when price is the consumer’s foremost criterion or when brand loyalty is low.
Buyers may learn about price discounts either at the point of sale or through advertising. At the point of sale, price reductions may be posted on the package, on signs near the product, or in storefront windows. Many types of advertisements can be used to notify consumers of upcoming discounts, including fliers and newspaper and television ads.
Price discounts are especially common in the food industry, where local supermarkets run weekly specials. Price discounts may be initiated by the manufacturer, the retailer, or the distributor. For instance, a manufacturer may “pre-price” a product and then convince the retailer to participate in this short-term discount through extra incentives. For price reduction strategies to be effective, they must have the support of all distributors in the channel. Existing customers perceive discounts as rewards and often respond by buying in larger quantities.
Another type of price deal is the bonus pack or banded pack. When a bonus pack is offered, an extra amount of the product is free when a standard size of the product is bought at the regular price. This technique is routinely used in the marketing of cleaning products, food, and health and beauty aids to introduce a new or larger size. A bonus pack rewards present users but may have little appeal to users of competitive brands. A banded pack offer is when two or more units of a product are sold at a reduction of the regular single-unit price. Sometimes the products are physically banded together, such as in toothbrush and toothpaste offers.
A refund or rebate promotion is an offer by a marketer to return a certain amount of money when the product is purchased alone or in combination with other products. Refunds aim to increase the quantity or frequency of purchase, to encourage customers to “load up” on the product. This strategy dampens competition by temporarily taking consumers out of the market, stimulates the purchase of postponable goods such as major appliances, and creates on-shelf excitement by encouraging special displays. Refunds and rebates are generally viewed as a reward for purchase, and they appear to build brand loyalty rather than diminish it.
Coupons are legal certificates offered by manufacturers and retailers. They grant specified savings on selected products when presented for redemption at the point of purchase. Manufacturers sustain the cost of advertising and distributing their coupons, redeeming their face values, and paying retailers a handling fee. Retailers who offer double or triple the amount of the coupon shoulder the extra cost. Retailers who offer their own coupons incur the total cost, including paying the face value. In this way, retail coupons are equivalent to a cents-off deal.
Manufacturers disseminate coupons in many ways. They may be delivered directly by mail, dropped door to door, or distributed through a central location such as a shopping mall. Coupons may also be distributed through the media—magazines, newspapers, Sunday supplements, or free-standing inserts (FSI) in newspapers. Coupons can be inserted into, attached to, or printed on a package, or they may be distributed by a retailer who uses them to generate store traffic or to tie in with a manufacturer’s promotional tactic. Retailer-sponsored coupons are typically distributed through print advertising or at the point of sale. Sometimes, though, specialty retailers or newly opened retailers will distribute coupons door to door or through direct mail.
CONTESTS/SWEEPSTAKES: The main difference between contests and sweepstakes is that contests require entrants to perform a task or demonstrate a skill that is judged in order to be deemed a winner, while sweepstakes involve a random drawing or chance contest that may or may not have an entry requirement. At one time, contests were more commonly used as sales promotions, mostly due to legal restrictions on gambling that many marketers feared might apply to sweepstakes. But the use of sweepstakes as a promotional tactic has grown dramatically in recent decades, partly because of legal changes and partly because of their lower cost. Administering a contest once cost about $350 per thousand entries, compared to just $2.75 to $3.75 per thousand entries in a sweepstake. Furthermore, participation in contests is very low compared to sweepstakes, since they require some sort of skill or ability.
SPECIAL EVENTS: According to the consulting firm International Events Group (IEG), businesses spend over $2 billion annually to link their products with everything from jazz festivals to golf tournaments to stock car races. In fact, large companies like RJR Nabisco and Anheuser-Busch have special divisions that handle nothing but special events. Special events marketing offers a number of advantages. First, events tend to attract a homogeneous audience that is very appreciative of the sponsors. Therefore, if a product fits well with the event and its audience, the impact of the sales promotion will be high. Second, event sponsorship often builds support among employees—who may receive acknowledgment for their participation—and within the trade. Finally, compared to producing a series of ads, event management is relatively simple. Many elements of event sponsorship are prepackaged and reusable, such as booths, displays, and ads. Special events marketing is available to small businesses, as well, through sponsorship of events on the community level.
PREMIUM: A premium is tangible compensation that is given as incentive for performing a particular act—usually buying a product. The premium may be given for free, or may be offered to consumers for a significantly reduced price. Some examples of premiums include receiving a prize in a cereal box or a free garden tool for visiting the grand opening of a hardware store. Incentives that are given for free at the time of purchase are called direct premiums. These offers provide instant gratification, plus there is no confusion about returning coupons or box tops, or saving bar codes or proofs of purchase.
Other types of direct premiums include traffic builders, door openers, and referral premiums. The garden tool is an example of a traffic-builder premium—an incentive to lure a prospective buyer to a store. A door-opener premium is directed to customers at home or to business people in their offices. For example, a homeowner may receive a free clock radio for allowing an insurance agent to enter their home and listening to his sales pitch. Similarly, an electronics manufacturer might offer free software to an office manager who agrees to an on-site demonstration. The final category of direct premiums, referral premiums, rewards the purchaser for referring the seller to other possible customers.
Mail premiums, unlike direct premiums, require the customer to perform some act in order to obtain a premium through return mail. An example might be a limited edition toy car offered by a marketer in exchange for one or more proofs-of-purchase and a payment covering the cost of the item plus handling. The premium is still valuable to the consumer because they cannot readily buy the item for the same amount.

CONTINUITY PROGRAMS: Continuity programs retain brand users over a long time period by offering ongoing motivation or incentives. Continuity programs demand that consumers keep buying the product in order to get the premium in the future. Trading stamps, popularized in the 1950s and 1960s, are prime examples. Consumers usually received one stamp for every dime spent at a participating store. The stamp company provided redemption centers where the stamps were traded for merchandise. A catalog listing the quantity of stamps required for each item was available at the participating stores. Today, airlines’ frequent-flyer clubs, hotels’ frequent-traveler plans, retailers’ frequent-shopper programs, and bonus-paying credit cards are common continuity programs. When competing brands have reached parity in terms of price and service, continuity programs sometimes prove a deciding factor among those competitors. By rewarding long-standing customers for their loyalty, continuity programs also reduce the threat of new competitors entering a market.

SAMPLING: A sign of a successful marketer is getting the product into the hands of the consumer. Sometimes, particularly when a product is new or is not a market leader, an effective strategy is giving a sample product to the consumer, either free or for a small fee. But in order for sampling to change people’s future purchase decisions, the product must have benefits or features that will be obvious during the trial.
There are several means of disseminating samples to consumers. The most popular has been through the mail, but increases in postage costs and packaging requirements have made this method less attractive. An alternative is door-to-door distribution, particularly when the items are bulky and when reputable distribution organizations exist. This method permits selective sampling of neighborhoods, dwellings, or even people. Another method is distributing samples in conjunction with advertising. An ad may include a coupon that the consumer can mail in for the product, or it may include an address or phone number for ordering. Direct sampling can be achieved through prime media using scratch-and-sniff cards and slim foil pouches, or through retailers using special displays or a person hired to hand out samples to passing customers. Though this last technique may build goodwill for the retailer, some retailers resent the inconvenience and require high payments for their cooperation.
A final form of sample distribution deals with specialty types of sampling. For instance, some companies specialize in packing samples together for delivery to homogeneous consumer groups, such as newlyweds, new parents, students, or tourists. Such packages may be delivered at hospitals, hotels, or dormitories and include a number of different types of products.

 

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Every business owner knows that in order for a business to be successful, all internal strategies need to communicate the same message, represent the brand in the same way and tie in with each other seamlessly. With this in mind, many wonder how to go about integrating experiential marketing in their much larger business strategy, and how to demonstrate that the budget going into experiential marketing is, in fact, paying off in the long run? We have some advice to share below.

We have managed to bridge the gap between Sales & Marketing. Many companies spend huge budgets on marketing strategies with no real Return On Investment (ROI). Through our approach, we have optimised both of these functions, creating lower cost per acquisition, and maximising the ROI.

The mission of the organisation is to consistently exceed client’s expectations. We aim to explore new markets and industries, and to develop innovative ways of yielding the best results for them. Because of our passion and skill, we are able to represent any type of client, selling any type of product or service. Our adaptability and ability to think ‘out of the box’ has allowed us to yield outstanding results, assisting clients in achieving their Sales and Marketing objectives. As part of our goal, we focus on creating efficient and sustainable business opportunities.

fulcrum has developed a unique four-tier brand ambassador rating platform, with specific requirements per level – covering communication and selling skills, personal presentation, and financial and computer literacy. This rating platform helps create an ideal match between brand ambassador and brand, and within the specifications of your marketing strategy and budget.

The Fulcrum is a corporate social investment initiative aimed at finding and developing talent and creating jobs. It assists young brand ambassadors in acquiring and improving a range of skills, including communication and selling skills, personal presentation and grooming, financial literacy and basic technology skills. The Academy also covers career planning so that skills are developed in line with a career pathway.

Fulcrum is a progressive & creative organization, specializing in SalesMarketingBrand Promotions, . The organization started up in Maharashtra in 2007. As a results-based company, we have provided our clients with a competitive advantage over the last 9 years.

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Marketing tips, ideas, tricks, advice

 

How Understanding Your Customer’s Emotional Needs Will Aid Your Experiential

So many business owners focus on giving customers and potential customers what they want when it comes to experiential marketing campaigns. While this is great, they are likely to get a lot more out of their efforts if they start focusing on catering to their needs instead. Not only day-to-day needs but emotional needs, too. There are four core human emotional needs that marketers can tap into, helping to build a sense of brand loyalty within their consumers. We take a look at three of them below.

Belonging
Humans have a natural desire to ‘fit in’. They have a need to be considered a part of a group. They have a need to know that there are others just like them. This stems from the most common human fear, namely the fear of being alone.

“Marketers can use this need to their advantage by doing things that bring people together. Not only in a physical sense, but uniting them, along with the brand, with the help of a big idea that people can happily get behind. Creating a sense of community with their brand at the forefront is one of the easiest ways in which to generate loyalty and build connections with potential customers. A good example is a company that produces LED lighting taking a stance when it comes to greener living, and getting their customer base to be just as passionate about the movement as they are – as a collective, as a community.”

Identity
We all know that humans are complex creatures. So, it comes as no surprise to learn that another emotional need is to be unique. We all crave to belong; however, we want to belong without completely losing our special sense of self. We want to be able to differentiate ourselves from our groups without standing out too much.

“Here, marketers can strive to do everything in their power to make their customers feel special. Experiential marketing strategies that focus more on providing personalised experiences work well in this regard,” says .

Release
Arguably the most important emotional need these days, especially considering the fast-paced routines that the vast majority of us lead, is that of release: being able to escape from the norm that we are used to and delving into something different that we do not do every day.

“In terms of experiential marketing, providing the consumer with a sense of release should be a priority anyway. The key here is to get creative when it comes to the type of experience you are offering them. Don’t be afraid to do something completely out of the ordinary!”

Would you like to hire an experiential and field marketing company to assist you in tailoring your marketing efforts according to the emotional needs of your target audience? If so, be sure to get in touch with the team at Fulcrum

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2.4 Perception

2.4 Perception

 

Learning Objectives

Understand the influence of biases in the process of perception.

Describe how we perceive visual objects and how these tendencies may affect our behavior.

Describe the biases of self-perception.

Describe the biases inherent in our perceptions of other people.

Our behavior is not only a function of our personality and values but also of the situation. We interpret our environment, formulate responses, and act accordingly. Perception may be defined as the process by which individuals detect and interpret environmental stimuli. What makes human perception so interesting is that we do not solely respond to the stimuli in our environment. We go beyond the information that is present in our environment, pay selective attention to some aspects of the environment, and ignore other elements that may be immediately apparent to other people.

Our perception of the environment is not entirely rational. For example, have you ever noticed that while glancing at a newspaper or a news Web site, information that is especially interesting or important to you jumps out of the page and catches your eye? If you are a sports fan, while scrolling down the pages, you may immediately see a news item describing the latest success of your team. If you are the mother of a picky eater, an advice column on toddler feeding may be the first thing you see when looking at the page. If you were recently turned down for a loan, an item of financial news may jump out at you. Therefore, what we see in the environment is a function of what we value, our needs, our fears, and our emotions(Higgins & Bargh, 1987; Keltner, et. al., 1993). In fact, what we see in the environment may be objectively flat out wrong because of such mental tendencies. For example, one experiment showed that when people who were afraid of spiders were shown spiders, they inaccurately thought that the spider was moving toward them (Riskind, et. al., 1995).

In this section, we will describe some common perceptual tendencies we engage in when perceiving objects or other people and the consequences of such perceptions. Our coverage of these perceptual biases is not exhaustive—there are many other biases and tendencies that can be found in the way people perceive stimuli.

Visual Perception

Our visual perception definitely goes beyond the physical information available to us; this phenomenon is commonly referred to as “optical illusions.” Artists and designers of everything from apparel to cars to home interiors make use of optical illusions to enhance the look of the product. Managers rely on their visual perception to form their opinions about people and objects around them and to make sense of data presented in graphical form. Therefore, understanding how our visual perception may be biased is important.

First, we extrapolate from the information available to us. Take a look at the first figure. The white triangle you see in the middle is not really there, but we extrapolate from the information available to us and see it there. Similarly, when we look at objects that are partially blocked, we see the whole (Kellman & Shipley, 1991).

Now, look at the next figure. What do you see? Most people look at this figure and see two faces or a goblet, depending on which color—black or white—they focus upon. Our visual perception is often biased because we do not perceive objects in isolation. The contrast between our focus of attention and the remainder of the environment may make an object appear bigger or smaller.

This principle is shown here in the third figure. At first glance, the circle on the left may appear bigger, but they are the same size. This is due to the visual comparison of the middle circle on the left with its surrounding circles, whereas the middle circle on the right is compared with the bigger circles surrounding it.

How do these tendencies influence behavior in organizations? The fact that our visual perception is faulty means that managers should not always take what they see at face value. Let’s say that you do not like one of your peers and you think that you saw this person surfing the Web during work hours. Are you absolutely sure, or are you simply filling the gaps? Have you really seen this person surf unrelated Web sites, or is it possible that the person was searching for work-related purposes? The tendency to fill in the gaps also causes our memory to be faulty. Imagine that you have been at a meeting where several people made comments that you did not agree with. After the meeting, you may attribute most of these comments to people you did not like. In other words, you may twist the reality to make your memories more consistent with your opinions of people.

The tendency to compare and contrast objects and people to each other also causes problems. For example, if you are a manager who has been given an office much smaller than the other offices on the floor, you may feel that your workspace is crowded and uncomfortable. If the same office is surrounded by smaller offices, you may actually feel that your office is comfortable and roomy. In short, our biased visual perception may lead to the wrong inferences about the people and objects around us.

Self-Perception

Human beings are prone to errors and biases when perceiving themselves. Moreover, the type of bias people have depends on their personality. Many people suffer from self-enhancement bias. This is the tendency to overestimate our performance and capabilities and see ourselves in a more positive light than others see us. People who have a narcissistic personality are particularly subject to this bias, but many others also have this bias to varying degrees (John & Robins, 1994). At the same time, other people have the opposing extreme, which may be labeled as self-effacement bias (or modesty bias). This is the tendency to underestimate our performance and capabilities and to see events in a way that puts ourselves in a more negative light. We may expect that people with low self-esteem may be particularly prone to making this error. These tendencies have real consequences for behavior in organizations. For example, people who suffer from extreme levels of self-enhancement tendencies may not understand why they are not getting promoted or rewarded, while those who have a tendency to self-efface may project low confidence and take more blame for their failures than necessary.

When human beings perceive themselves, they are also subject to the false consensus error. Simply put, we overestimate how similar we are to other people (Fields & Schuman, 1976; Ross, et. al., 1977). We assume that whatever quirks we have are shared by a larger number of people than in reality. People who take office supplies home, tell white lies to their boss or colleagues, or take credit for other people’s work to get ahead may genuinely feel that these behaviors are more common than they really are. The problem for behavior in organizations is that, when people believe that a behavior is common and normal, they may repeat the behavior more freely. Under some circumstances, this may lead to a high level of unethical or even illegal behaviors.

Social Perception

How we perceive other people in our environment is also shaped by our biases. Moreover, how we perceive others will shape our behavior, which in turn will shape the behavior of the person we are interacting with.

One of the factors biasing our perception is stereotypes. Stereotypes are generalizations based on a group characteristic. For example, believing that women are more cooperative than men or that men are more assertive than women are stereotypes. Stereotypes may be positive, negative, or neutral. In the abstract, stereotyping is an adaptive function—we have a natural tendency to categorize the information around us to make sense of our environment. Just imagine how complicated life would be if we continually had to start from scratch to understand each new situation and each new person we encountered! What makes stereotypes potentially discriminatory and a perceptual bias is the tendency to generalize from a group to a particular individual. If the belief that men are more assertive than women leads to choosing a man over an equally qualified female candidate for a position, the decision will be biased, unfair, and potentially illegal.

Stereotypes often create a situation called self-fulfilling prophecy. This happens when an established stereotype causes one to behave in a certain way, which leads the other party to behave in a way that confirms the stereotype (Snyder, et. al., 1977). If you have a stereotype such as “Asians are friendly,” you are more likely to be friendly toward an Asian person. Because you are treating the other person more nicely, the response you get may also be nicer, which confirms your original belief that Asians are friendly. Of course, just the opposite is also true. Suppose you believe that “young employees are slackers.” You are less likely to give a young employee high levels of responsibility or interesting and challenging assignments. The result may be that the young employee reporting to you may become increasingly bored at work and start goofing off, confirming your suspicions that young people are slackers!

Stereotypes persist because of a process called selective perception. Selective perception simply means that we pay selective attention to parts of the environment while ignoring other parts, which is particularly important during the Planning process. Our background, expectations, and beliefs will shape which events we notice and which events we ignore. For example, an executive’s functional background will affect the changes he or she perceives in the environment (Waller, et. al., 1995). Executives with a background in sales and marketing see the changes in the demand for their product, while executives with a background in information technology may more readily perceive the changes in the technology the company is using. Selective perception may also perpetuate stereotypes because we are less likely to notice events that go against our beliefs. A person who believes that men drive better than women may be more likely to notice women driving poorly than men driving poorly. As a result, a stereotype is maintained because information to the contrary may not even reach our brain!

Let’s say we noticed information that goes against our beliefs. What then? Unfortunately, this is no guarantee that we will modify our beliefs and prejudices. First, when we see examples that go against our stereotypes, we tend to come up with subcategories. For example, people who believe that women are more cooperative when they see a female who is assertive may classify her as a “career woman.” Therefore, the example to the contrary does not violate the stereotype and is explained as an exception to the rule (Higgins & Bargh, 1987). Or, we may simply discount the information. In one study, people in favor of and against the death penalty were shown two studies, one showing benefits for the death penalty while the other disconfirming any benefits. People rejected the study that went against their belief as methodologically inferior and ended up believing in their original position even more (Lord, et. al., 1979)! In other words, using data to debunk people’s beliefs or previously established opinions may not necessarily work, a tendency to guard against when conducting Planning and Controlling activities.

One other perceptual tendency that may affect work behavior is first impressions. The first impressions we form about people tend to have a lasting effect. In fact, first impressions, once formed, are surprisingly resilient to contrary information. Even if people are told that the first impressions were caused by inaccurate information, people hold on to them to a certain degree because once we form first impressions, they become independent from the evidence that created them (Ross, et. al., 1975). Therefore, any information we receive to the contrary does not serve the purpose of altering them. Imagine the first day that you met your colleague Anne. She treated you in a rude manner, and when you asked for her help, she brushed you off. You may form the belief that Anne is a rude and unhelpful person. Later on, you may hear that Anne’s mother is seriously ill, making Anne very stressed. In reality, she may have been unusually stressed on the day you first met her. If you had met her at a time when her stress level was lower, you could have thought that she is a really nice person. But chances are, your impression that she is rude and unhelpful will not change even when you hear about her mother. Instead, this new piece of information will be added to the first one: She is rude, unhelpful, and her mother is sick.

As a manager, you can protect yourself against this tendency by being aware of it and making a conscious effort to open your mind to new information. It would also be to your advantage to pay careful attention to the first impressions you create, particularly during job interviews.

Key Takeaway

Perception is how we make sense of our environment in response to environmental stimuli. While perceiving our surroundings, we go beyond the objective information available to us and our perception is affected by our values, needs, and emotions. There are many biases that affect human perception of objects, self, and others. When perceiving the physical environment, we fill in the gaps and extrapolate from the available information. When perceiving others, stereotypes influence our behavior. Stereotypes may lead to self-fulfilling prophecies. Stereotypes are perpetuated because of our tendency to pay selective attention to aspects of the environment and ignore information inconsistent with our beliefs. Understanding the perception process gives us clues to understanding human behavior.

Exercises

What are some of the typical errors, or optical illusions, that we experience when we observe physical objects?

What are the problems of false consensus error? How can managers deal with this tendency?

Describe a situation where perception biases have or could affect any of the P-O-L-C facets. Use an example you have experienced or observed, or, if you do not have such an example, create a hypothetical situation. How do we manage the fact that human beings develop stereotypes? Is there such as thing as a good stereotype? How would you prevent stereotypes from creating unfairness in management decisions?

Describe a self-fulfilling prophecy you have experienced or observed in action. Was the prophecy favorable or unfavorable? If unfavorable, how could the parties have chosen different behavior to produce a more positive outcome?

Fields, J. M., & Schuman, H. (1976). Public beliefs about the beliefs of the public. The Public Opinion Quarterly, 40 (4), 427–448.

Higgins, E. T., & Bargh, J. A. (1987). Social cognition and social perception. Annual Review of Psychology, 38, 369–425.

John, O. P., & Robins, R. W. (1994). Accuracy and bias in self-perception: Individual differences in self-enhancement and the role of narcissism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 206–219.

John, O. P., & Robins, R. W. (1994). Accuracy and bias in self-perception: Individual differences in self-enhancement and the role of narcissism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 206–219.

Kellman, P. J., & Shipley, T. F. (1991). A theory of visual interpolation in object perception. Cognitive Psychology, 23, 141–221.

Keltner, D., Ellsworth, P. C., & Edwards, K. (1993). Beyond simple pessimism: Effects of sadness and anger on social perception. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 740–752.

Lord, C. G., Ross, L., & Lepper, M. R. (1979) Biased assimilation and attitude polarization: The effects of prior theories on subsequently considered evidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 2098–2109.

Riskind, J. H., Moore, R., & Bowley, L. (1995). The looming of spiders: The fearful perceptual distortion of movement and menace. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 33, 171.

Ross, L., Greene, D., & House, P. (1977). The “false consensus effect”: An egocentric bias in social perception and attribution processes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 13, 279–301.

Ross, L., Lepper, M. R., & Hubbard, M. (1975). Perseverance in self-perception and social perception: Biased attributional processes in the debriefing paradigm. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32, 880–892.

Snyder, M., Tanke, E. D., & Berscheid, E. (1977). Social perception and interpersonal behavior: On the self-fulfilling nature of social stereotypes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 656–666.

Waller, M. J., Huber, G. P., & Glick, W. H. (1995). Functional background as a determinant of executives’ selective perception. Academy of Management Journal, 38, 943–974.

 

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BTL refers to a series of marketing techniques known collectively as below-the-line marketing. Below-the-line marketing includes direct marketing by mail or email, sales promotion, marketing communications, exhibitions and telemarketing. Above-the-line marketing refers to advertising in media such as print, cinema, radio, television, outdoor posters and the Internet. Marketing campaigns that use both above-the-line and below-the-line techniques are known as through-the-line campaigns.

Agency Remuneration
The terms above-the-line and below-the-line originally referred to the way advertising agencies were remunerated for their services. Agencies received commission from the media in return for placing advertisements. The level of commission was sufficient to cover the costs of creating and producing the content for advertisements, as well as providing the agency with a fee and profit contribution. Agencies retained the commission and clients received the creative and production costs free. Because no commission was available on non-media activities, agencies charged clients for all creative and production costs.

Below-The-Line Agencies
The basis of agency remuneration has evolved, and advertising agencies now base their charges on a combination of fees and retained commission. However, clients have recognized the importance of below-the-line marketing and work with companies that offer specific services, such as direct marketing agencies, sales promotion agencies, marketing communications consultancies and telemarketing agencies.

Precision
Companies use below-the-line campaigns to reach audiences that are difficult or costly to contact through advertising media. A direct marketing campaign, for example, targeting a selected group of key customers with a limited-time offer represents a precise form of marketing with minimal waste. A sales promotion campaign offering discounts on a product in a single retail chain drives consumers to a series of defined locations, allowing precise measurement of the campaign’s effectiveness.

Integration
Combining above -the-line and below-the-line techniques in a single, integrated campaign can improve marketing effectiveness. An advertising campaign to launch a new product, combined with a retail incentive program and an in-store consumer promotion will encourage retailers to carry additional stocks of the advertised product. Through-the-line campaigns are most effective when advertising and below-the-line content use the same creative approach and communicate consistent messages across all media.

Multi-Channel Marketing
The increasing importance of social media is focusing attention on communicating with customers though multiple channels, rather than relying on individual above-the-line or below-the-line channels. Marketers also recognize the importance of building dialog with customers, rather than marketing through one-way communications.

What Are the Different Types of Advertising?

Advertisers pay for advertising to accomplish a wide array of goals. Ad objectives generally boil down to long-term branding communication or short-term direct response advertising. Branding is about building and maintaining a reputation for your company that distinguishes it in the marketplace. Sales promos are short-term inducements to drive revenue or cash flow. Based on your company’s objectives, budget and target audience, you normally advertise through one or more types of media. Calculating your return on investment in dollars is difficult, but you need to establish measurable goals, such as a percentage increase in awareness, to evaluate success.

Broadcast Media
Television and radio are two traditional broadcast media long used in advertising. Television offers creative opportunities, a dynamic message and wide audience reach. It is typically the most expensive medium to advertise through, though. Because local affiliated stations normally serve a wide local audience, you also have to deal with waste when trying to target a small town marketplace. TV watchers normally have a negative attitude toward commercials and many have DVRs at their fingertips. Radio and TV both have fleeting messages, meaning they disappear once the commercial spot ends. Radio is relatively affordable for small businesses and allows for repetition and frequency. You don’t have the visual element of TV and you have to deal with a distracted audience, since most listeners are driving.

Print Media
Magazines and newspapers are the two traditional print media. Magazines offer a highly selective audience who is generally interested in ads closely related to the topic of the magazine. Visual imagery is also stronger in magazines than newspapers. You have little wasted since magazines are very niche and you can target a narrow customer segment. On the downside, magazines are costly and require long lead times, which limits timely promotions. They also have limited audience reach. Newspapers are very affordable for local businesses and allow you to target a geographic segment if you have a universal product or service. Newspapers are also viewed as a credible medium, which enhances ad acceptance. You can usually get an ad placed within a day or two of purchase. Declining circulation, a short shelf life and limited visual creativity are drawbacks.

Support Media
Support media include several options for message delivery than normally add to or expand campaigns delivered through more traditional media. Billboards, transits, bus benches, aerial, directories and trade publications are common support media. Each has pros and cons, but collectively, they offer ways to reach a wider audience in a local or regional market or to increase frequency of message exposure to targeted market segments.

Direct Marketing
Direct marketing is an interactive approach to advertising that has picked up in usage in the early 21st century. It includes direct mail, email and telemarketing. These are direct response efforts to create an ongoing dialogue or interaction with customers. Weekly or monthly email newsletters, for instance, allow you to keep your brand, products and other messages in front of prospects and customers. Telemarketing is a way to survey customers and offer new products, upgrades or renewals. Direct mail is the most common format of direct marketing where you send mailers or postcards to targeted customers promoting products, deals or promotions. Direct marketing has become more prominent because it allows for ease in tracking customer response rates and helps advertisers better measure return on investment.

Product Placement
Another newer advertising technique is product placement. This is where you offer compensation to a TV show, movie, video game or theme park to use your product while entertaining audiences. You could pay a TV show, for instance, to depict your product being used and discussed positive in a particular scene. This ad method is a way for companies to integrate ads with entertainment since customers have found ways to avoid messages delivered through more conventional media.

Internet
The Internet is used by online and offline companies to promote products or services. Banner ads, pop up ads, text ads and paid search placements are common forms. Banner, pop up and text ads are ways to present an image or message on a publisher’s website or on a number of websites through a third-party platform like Google’s Adwords program. Paid search placements, also known as cost-per-click advertising, is where you bid a certain amount to present your link and text message to users of search engines like Google and Yahoo!

Social Media
Businesses can also create different target groups, and send ads on social media platforms to users that would be most interested in their products and services. Targeting options can include targeting based on geographic location, buying tendencies, and other consumer behavior. One effective method of placing social media ads is known as retargeting, which focuses on website visitors that left without buying a product or service, or without signing up for some type of free offer like subscribing to a newsletter. Businesses can place a pixel on the visitor’s browser, and send targeted ads to that visitor as he or she browses other websites. Sponsored ads work in a similar way to retargeting, but the difference is that businesses pay to have these ads appear on specific websites that their target audience is likely to visit.

 

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834 Benefits of Sales Promotion

A successful promotion has the ability to nurture relationships with consumers through retention and engagement. Promotions can often shape the characteristics of brands, for example, McDonald?s Monopoly board is something

INTRODUCTION OF SALES PROMOTION
Sales promotion consists of a diverse collection of incentive tools, mostly short term, designed to stimulated quicker and/or greater purchase of particular product/service or the trend. Sales promotion is a process of persuading of sales to potential customer to buy the product.
The topic is about the sales promotion activity that makes awareness of the product of the company. The topic itself describe that how to increase the sales growth of the company product and it is also about the make awareness to the customer about the company products.
Sales promotion plays a very important role in the company. So in the current context every company makes sales promotion in different ways like advertisement by media, news paper , magazine.
Sales promotion is an important component of a small medium and large business’s overall marketing strategy, along with advertising, public relations, and personal selling. The American Marketing Association (AMA) defines sales promotion as “media and non-media marketing pressure applied for a predetermined, limited period of time in order to stimulate trial, increase consumer demand, or improve product quality.” But this definition does not capture all the elements of modern sales promotion. One should add that effective sales promotion increases the basic value of a product for a limited time and directly stimulates consumer purchasing, selling effectiveness, or the effort of the sales force. It can be used to inform, persuade, and remind target customers about the business and its marketing mix. Some common types of sales promotion include samples, coupons, sweepstakes, contests, in-store displays, trade shows, price-off deals, premiums, and rebates.
Businesses can target sales promotions at three different audiences: consumers, resellers, and the company’s own sales force. Sales promotion acts as a competitive weapon by providing an extra incentive for the target audience to purchase or support one brand over another. It is particularly effective in spurring product trial and unplanned purchases.
Most marketers believe that a given product or service has an established perceived price or value, and they use sales promotion to change this price-value relationship by increasing the value and/or lowering the price. Compared to the other components of the marketing mix (advertising, publicity, and personal selling), sales promotion usually operates on a shorter time line, uses a more rational appeal, returns a tangible or real value, fosters an immediate sale, and contributes highly to profitability.
In determining the relative importance to place on sales promotion in the overall marketing mix, a small business should consider its marketing budget, the stage of the product in its life cycle, the nature of competition in the market, the target of the promotion, and the nature of the product. For example, sales promotion and direct mail are particularly attractive alternatives when the marketing budget is limited, as it is for many small businesses. In addition, sales promotion can be an effective tool in a highly competitive market, when the objective is to convince retailers to carry a product or influence consumers to select it over those of competitors. Similarly, sales promotion is often used in the growth and maturity stages of the product life cycle to stimulate consumers and resellers to choose that product over the competition—rather than in the introduction stage, when mass advertising to build awareness might be more important. Finally, sales promotion tends to work best when it is applied to impulse items whose features can be judged at the point of purchase, rather than more complex, expensive items that might require hands-on demonstration.
Back in 1950s, it was said that doing business without sales promotion is like winking at a girl in the dark; you know you what you are doing, but nobody else does. The message was: crowded scenario of multiple ads even winking in broad daylight goes unnoticed. Since everyone is sales promotion, the idea is to do it with innovation ‘Come on, turn on the light, it pays to sales promotion. Today, in this complex world amidst heavy rush or everything, having a densely.

Sales promotion is of immense utility both to large and small business. There can be no doubt that sales promotion efforts would result in creation of additional sales. All forms of promotion of sale of goods is in one way or the other, supported by extensive advertising campaign. It is not possible to imagine survival of any business, which is in the business of “make and sell” in the absence of advertising efforts. Advertising has extended its coverage to include non-business enterprises also e.g.. Public Water Works advertises the need to preserve precious water and to cultivate the habit of drinking clean water free from any form of pollution. Countless illustrations can be provided wherein non-business enterprises have recognised the importance of advertising and their use it as a tool to promote ideas and services.

Sales promotion is an economic activity and it generates employment. Thousands of men and women are directly or indirectly, employed in professional sales promotion. sales promotion is an economic proposition. People who invest their money in sales promotion anticipate positive results. Hence, sales promotion must be result-oriented. Every newspaper or magazine survives on the advertisements that it receives. sales promotion are definite source of revenue to the publishers. Because of the advertisements inserted in newspapers and magazines, they are sold at lower price, which can be afforded by the public. Advertising is of paramount importance because it creates better-informed public by making available innumerable publications at an affordable price. Considering the response that advertisements generate, it can be stated that “advertising does not cost too much”.
In older to cut down production cost per unit there is a need to increase the total sales turnover. When overall sales increase, production cost per unit is automatically slashed and more people buy the goods. Apart from towering production costs, advertising also pays for entertainment and education through use of media like radio and TV.
.
Consumer is the king in the market. He cannot be compelled to buy anything. At the most, he can be persuaded to patronize a certain brand. It is here that advertising plays a prominent role.
There is no standard format to be followed to make advertising liked by every person. Advertising is a creative field. Individual likes and dislikes determine success of advertising or its failure. Advertising scores over personal selling because it provides freedom of choice to the consumer. Decision to make purchases is independently arrived at by the consumers. No civilized society can record constant progress and ensure better standard of living to its people in the absence of information and education provided by advertising
CONSUMER PROMOTIONS
Consumer sales promotions are steered toward the ultimate product users—typically individual shoppers in the local market—but the same techniques can be used to promote products sold by one business to another, such as computer systems, cleaning supplies, and machinery. In contrast, trade sales promotions target resellers—wholesalers and retailers—who carry the marketer’s product. Following are some of the key techniques used in consumer-oriented sales promotions.
PRICE DEALS: A consumer price deal saves the buyer money when a product is purchased. The main types of price deals include discounts, bonus pack deals, refunds or rebates, and coupons. Price deals are usually intended to encourage trial use of a new product or line extension, to recruit new buyers for a mature product, or to convince existing customers to increase their purchases, accelerate their use, or purchase multiple units. Price deals work most effectively when price is the consumer’s foremost criterion or when brand loyalty is low.
Buyers may learn about price discounts either at the point of sale or through advertising. At the point of sale, price reductions may be posted on the package, on signs near the product, or in storefront windows. Many types of advertisements can be used to notify consumers of upcoming discounts, including fliers and newspaper and television ads.
Price discounts are especially common in the food industry, where local supermarkets run weekly specials. Price discounts may be initiated by the manufacturer, the retailer, or the distributor. For instance, a manufacturer may “pre-price” a product and then convince the retailer to participate in this short-term discount through extra incentives. For price reduction strategies to be effective, they must have the support of all distributors in the channel. Existing customers perceive discounts as rewards and often respond by buying in larger quantities.
Another type of price deal is the bonus pack or banded pack. When a bonus pack is offered, an extra amount of the product is free when a standard size of the product is bought at the regular price. This technique is routinely used in the marketing of cleaning products, food, and health and beauty aids to introduce a new or larger size. A bonus pack rewards present users but may have little appeal to users of competitive brands. A banded pack offer is when two or more units of a product are sold at a reduction of the regular single-unit price. Sometimes the products are physically banded together, such as in toothbrush and toothpaste offers.
A refund or rebate promotion is an offer by a marketer to return a certain amount of money when the product is purchased alone or in combination with other products. Refunds aim to increase the quantity or frequency of purchase, to encourage customers to “load up” on the product. This strategy dampens competition by temporarily taking consumers out of the market, stimulates the purchase of postponable goods such as major appliances, and creates on-shelf excitement by encouraging special displays. Refunds and rebates are generally viewed as a reward for purchase, and they appear to build brand loyalty rather than diminish it.
Coupons are legal certificates offered by manufacturers and retailers. They grant specified savings on selected products when presented for redemption at the point of purchase. Manufacturers sustain the cost of advertising and distributing their coupons, redeeming their face values, and paying retailers a handling fee. Retailers who offer double or triple the amount of the coupon shoulder the extra cost. Retailers who offer their own coupons incur the total cost, including paying the face value. In this way, retail coupons are equivalent to a cents-off deal.
Manufacturers disseminate coupons in many ways. They may be delivered directly by mail, dropped door to door, or distributed through a central location such as a shopping mall. Coupons may also be distributed through the media—magazines, newspapers, Sunday supplements, or free-standing inserts (FSI) in newspapers. Coupons can be inserted into, attached to, or printed on a package, or they may be distributed by a retailer who uses them to generate store traffic or to tie in with a manufacturer’s promotional tactic. Retailer-sponsored coupons are typically distributed through print advertising or at the point of sale. Sometimes, though, specialty retailers or newly opened retailers will distribute coupons door to door or through direct mail.
CONTESTS/SWEEPSTAKES: The main difference between contests and sweepstakes is that contests require entrants to perform a task or demonstrate a skill that is judged in order to be deemed a winner, while sweepstakes involve a random drawing or chance contest that may or may not have an entry requirement. At one time, contests were more commonly used as sales promotions, mostly due to legal restrictions on gambling that many marketers feared might apply to sweepstakes. But the use of sweepstakes as a promotional tactic has grown dramatically in recent decades, partly because of legal changes and partly because of their lower cost. Administering a contest once cost about $350 per thousand entries, compared to just $2.75 to $3.75 per thousand entries in a sweepstake. Furthermore, participation in contests is very low compared to sweepstakes, since they require some sort of skill or ability.
SPECIAL EVENTS: According to the consulting firm International Events Group (IEG), businesses spend over $2 billion annually to link their products with everything from jazz festivals to golf tournaments to stock car races. In fact, large companies like RJR Nabisco and Anheuser-Busch have special divisions that handle nothing but special events. Special events marketing offers a number of advantages. First, events tend to attract a homogeneous audience that is very appreciative of the sponsors. Therefore, if a product fits well with the event and its audience, the impact of the sales promotion will be high. Second, event sponsorship often builds support among employees—who may receive acknowledgment for their participation—and within the trade. Finally, compared to producing a series of ads, event management is relatively simple. Many elements of event sponsorship are prepackaged and reusable, such as booths, displays, and ads. Special events marketing is available to small businesses, as well, through sponsorship of events on the community level.
PREMIUM: A premium is tangible compensation that is given as incentive for performing a particular act—usually buying a product. The premium may be given for free, or may be offered to consumers for a significantly reduced price. Some examples of premiums include receiving a prize in a cereal box or a free garden tool for visiting the grand opening of a hardware store. Incentives that are given for free at the time of purchase are called direct premiums. These offers provide instant gratification, plus there is no confusion about returning coupons or box tops, or saving bar codes or proofs of purchase.
Other types of direct premiums include traffic builders, door openers, and referral premiums. The garden tool is an example of a traffic-builder premium—an incentive to lure a prospective buyer to a store. A door-opener premium is directed to customers at home or to business people in their offices. For example, a homeowner may receive a free clock radio for allowing an insurance agent to enter their home and listening to his sales pitch. Similarly, an electronics manufacturer might offer free software to an office manager who agrees to an on-site demonstration. The final category of direct premiums, referral premiums, rewards the purchaser for referring the seller to other possible customers.
Mail premiums, unlike direct premiums, require the customer to perform some act in order to obtain a premium through return mail. An example might be a limited edition toy car offered by a marketer in exchange for one or more proofs-of-purchase and a payment covering the cost of the item plus handling. The premium is still valuable to the consumer because they cannot readily buy the item for the same amount.

CONTINUITY PROGRAMS: Continuity programs retain brand users over a long time period by offering ongoing motivation or incentives. Continuity programs demand that consumers keep buying the product in order to get the premium in the future. Trading stamps, popularized in the 1950s and 1960s, are prime examples. Consumers usually received one stamp for every dime spent at a participating store. The stamp company provided redemption centers where the stamps were traded for merchandise. A catalog listing the quantity of stamps required for each item was available at the participating stores. Today, airlines’ frequent-flyer clubs, hotels’ frequent-traveler plans, retailers’ frequent-shopper programs, and bonus-paying credit cards are common continuity programs. When competing brands have reached parity in terms of price and service, continuity programs sometimes prove a deciding factor among those competitors. By rewarding long-standing customers for their loyalty, continuity programs also reduce the threat of new competitors entering a market.

SAMPLING: A sign of a successful marketer is getting the product into the hands of the consumer. Sometimes, particularly when a product is new or is not a market leader, an effective strategy is giving a sample product to the consumer, either free or for a small fee. But in order for sampling to change people’s future purchase decisions, the product must have benefits or features that will be obvious during the trial.
There are several means of disseminating samples to consumers. The most popular has been through the mail, but increases in postage costs and packaging requirements have made this method less attractive. An alternative is door-to-door distribution, particularly when the items are bulky and when reputable distribution organizations exist. This method permits selective sampling of neighborhoods, dwellings, or even people. Another method is distributing samples in conjunction with advertising. An ad may include a coupon that the consumer can mail in for the product, or it may include an address or phone number for ordering. Direct sampling can be achieved through prime media using scratch-and-sniff cards and slim foil pouches, or through retailers using special displays or a person hired to hand out samples to passing customers. Though this last technique may build goodwill for the retailer, some retailers resent the inconvenience and require high payments for their cooperation.
A final form of sample distribution deals with specialty types of sampling. For instance, some companies specialize in packing samples together for delivery to homogeneous consumer groups, such as newlyweds, new parents, students, or tourists. Such packages may be delivered at hospitals, hotels, or dormitories and include a number of different types of products.

 

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We have managed to bridge the gap between Sales & Marketing. Many companies spend huge budgets on marketing strategies with no real Return On Investment (ROI). Through our approach, we have optimised both of these functions, creating lower cost per acquisition, and maximising the ROI.

The mission of the organisation is to consistently exceed client’s expectations. We aim to explore new markets and industries, and to develop innovative ways of yielding the best results for them. Because of our passion and skill, we are able to represent any type of client, selling any type of product or service. Our adaptability and ability to think ‘out of the box’ has allowed us to yield outstanding results, assisting clients in achieving their Sales and Marketing objectives. As part of our goal, we focus on creating efficient and sustainable business opportunities.

fulcrum has developed a unique four-tier brand ambassador rating platform, with specific requirements per level – covering communication and selling skills, personal presentation, and financial and computer literacy. This rating platform helps create an ideal match between brand ambassador and brand, and within the specifications of your marketing strategy and budget.

The Fulcrum is a corporate social investment initiative aimed at finding and developing talent and creating jobs. It assists young brand ambassadors in acquiring and improving a range of skills, including communication and selling skills, personal presentation and grooming, financial literacy and basic technology skills. The Academy also covers career planning so that skills are developed in line with a career pathway.

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Marketing tips, ideas, tricks, advice

 

 

Integrating Experiential Marketing into Your Business Strategy

Every business owner knows that in order for a business to be successful, all internal strategies need to communicate the same message, represent the brand in the same way and tie in with each other seamlessly. With this in mind, many wonder how to go about integrating experiential marketing in their much larger business strategy, and how to demonstrate that the budget going into experiential marketing is, in fact, paying off in the long run? We have some advice to share below.

Identifying the Return
Seeing as though experiential marketing is all about providing customers and potential customers with memorable experiences in the hopes of building brand loyalty leading to a return further down the line, it can seem impossible to prove whether or not this type of marketing is working for your business, as there is seldom a direct link between these strategies and an increase in your bottom line. The good news is that there is a way in which to track the progress of your experiential marketing campaigns.

“The simple solution is to incorporate the latest data collecting technology into your experiential marketing strategies and events. Things like RFID wristbands or even simple questionnaires on a tablet can help you to collect information on those taking part in your events… and track them as they move through the buyer’s journey over time.”

Planning Quality Experiential Marketing Events

However, in order to get the above right, you need to make sure that you plan successful experiential marketing events. If people are not drawn in to partake in your experiential marketing activities, they probably will not be too keen to provide you with their details either.

“The key to planning a successful event lies in not losing sight of your company’s bigger objectives. While customer experience is of the utmost importance, if you do not communicate the brand’s bigger message and work towards achieving the company’s larger goals, the experience that you have provided won’t amount to much in the long run,

Seeing as though experiential marketing requires solid planning and strategic execution, especially when it comes to ensuring that it fits in with the company’s larger business strategy; it pays to enlist the services and expertise of the professionals from an experiential and field marketing company. Contact the Fulcrum team today to learn how we can help you.

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2.4 Perception

2.4 Perception

 

Learning Objectives

Understand the influence of biases in the process of perception.

Describe how we perceive visual objects and how these tendencies may affect our behavior.

Describe the biases of self-perception.

Describe the biases inherent in our perceptions of other people.

Our behavior is not only a function of our personality and values but also of the situation. We interpret our environment, formulate responses, and act accordingly. Perception may be defined as the process by which individuals detect and interpret environmental stimuli. What makes human perception so interesting is that we do not solely respond to the stimuli in our environment. We go beyond the information that is present in our environment, pay selective attention to some aspects of the environment, and ignore other elements that may be immediately apparent to other people.

Our perception of the environment is not entirely rational. For example, have you ever noticed that while glancing at a newspaper or a news Web site, information that is especially interesting or important to you jumps out of the page and catches your eye? If you are a sports fan, while scrolling down the pages, you may immediately see a news item describing the latest success of your team. If you are the mother of a picky eater, an advice column on toddler feeding may be the first thing you see when looking at the page. If you were recently turned down for a loan, an item of financial news may jump out at you. Therefore, what we see in the environment is a function of what we value, our needs, our fears, and our emotions(Higgins & Bargh, 1987; Keltner, et. al., 1993). In fact, what we see in the environment may be objectively flat out wrong because of such mental tendencies. For example, one experiment showed that when people who were afraid of spiders were shown spiders, they inaccurately thought that the spider was moving toward them (Riskind, et. al., 1995).

In this section, we will describe some common perceptual tendencies we engage in when perceiving objects or other people and the consequences of such perceptions. Our coverage of these perceptual biases is not exhaustive—there are many other biases and tendencies that can be found in the way people perceive stimuli.

Visual Perception

Our visual perception definitely goes beyond the physical information available to us; this phenomenon is commonly referred to as “optical illusions.” Artists and designers of everything from apparel to cars to home interiors make use of optical illusions to enhance the look of the product. Managers rely on their visual perception to form their opinions about people and objects around them and to make sense of data presented in graphical form. Therefore, understanding how our visual perception may be biased is important.

First, we extrapolate from the information available to us. Take a look at the first figure. The white triangle you see in the middle is not really there, but we extrapolate from the information available to us and see it there. Similarly, when we look at objects that are partially blocked, we see the whole (Kellman & Shipley, 1991).

Now, look at the next figure. What do you see? Most people look at this figure and see two faces or a goblet, depending on which color—black or white—they focus upon. Our visual perception is often biased because we do not perceive objects in isolation. The contrast between our focus of attention and the remainder of the environment may make an object appear bigger or smaller.

This principle is shown here in the third figure. At first glance, the circle on the left may appear bigger, but they are the same size. This is due to the visual comparison of the middle circle on the left with its surrounding circles, whereas the middle circle on the right is compared with the bigger circles surrounding it.

How do these tendencies influence behavior in organizations? The fact that our visual perception is faulty means that managers should not always take what they see at face value. Let’s say that you do not like one of your peers and you think that you saw this person surfing the Web during work hours. Are you absolutely sure, or are you simply filling the gaps? Have you really seen this person surf unrelated Web sites, or is it possible that the person was searching for work-related purposes? The tendency to fill in the gaps also causes our memory to be faulty. Imagine that you have been at a meeting where several people made comments that you did not agree with. After the meeting, you may attribute most of these comments to people you did not like. In other words, you may twist the reality to make your memories more consistent with your opinions of people.

The tendency to compare and contrast objects and people to each other also causes problems. For example, if you are a manager who has been given an office much smaller than the other offices on the floor, you may feel that your workspace is crowded and uncomfortable. If the same office is surrounded by smaller offices, you may actually feel that your office is comfortable and roomy. In short, our biased visual perception may lead to the wrong inferences about the people and objects around us.

Self-Perception

Human beings are prone to errors and biases when perceiving themselves. Moreover, the type of bias people have depends on their personality. Many people suffer from self-enhancement bias. This is the tendency to overestimate our performance and capabilities and see ourselves in a more positive light than others see us. People who have a narcissistic personality are particularly subject to this bias, but many others also have this bias to varying degrees (John & Robins, 1994). At the same time, other people have the opposing extreme, which may be labeled as self-effacement bias (or modesty bias). This is the tendency to underestimate our performance and capabilities and to see events in a way that puts ourselves in a more negative light. We may expect that people with low self-esteem may be particularly prone to making this error. These tendencies have real consequences for behavior in organizations. For example, people who suffer from extreme levels of self-enhancement tendencies may not understand why they are not getting promoted or rewarded, while those who have a tendency to self-efface may project low confidence and take more blame for their failures than necessary.

When human beings perceive themselves, they are also subject to the false consensus error. Simply put, we overestimate how similar we are to other people (Fields & Schuman, 1976; Ross, et. al., 1977). We assume that whatever quirks we have are shared by a larger number of people than in reality. People who take office supplies home, tell white lies to their boss or colleagues, or take credit for other people’s work to get ahead may genuinely feel that these behaviors are more common than they really are. The problem for behavior in organizations is that, when people believe that a behavior is common and normal, they may repeat the behavior more freely. Under some circumstances, this may lead to a high level of unethical or even illegal behaviors.

Social Perception

How we perceive other people in our environment is also shaped by our biases. Moreover, how we perceive others will shape our behavior, which in turn will shape the behavior of the person we are interacting with.

One of the factors biasing our perception is stereotypes. Stereotypes are generalizations based on a group characteristic. For example, believing that women are more cooperative than men or that men are more assertive than women are stereotypes. Stereotypes may be positive, negative, or neutral. In the abstract, stereotyping is an adaptive function—we have a natural tendency to categorize the information around us to make sense of our environment. Just imagine how complicated life would be if we continually had to start from scratch to understand each new situation and each new person we encountered! What makes stereotypes potentially discriminatory and a perceptual bias is the tendency to generalize from a group to a particular individual. If the belief that men are more assertive than women leads to choosing a man over an equally qualified female candidate for a position, the decision will be biased, unfair, and potentially illegal.

Stereotypes often create a situation called self-fulfilling prophecy. This happens when an established stereotype causes one to behave in a certain way, which leads the other party to behave in a way that confirms the stereotype (Snyder, et. al., 1977). If you have a stereotype such as “Asians are friendly,” you are more likely to be friendly toward an Asian person. Because you are treating the other person more nicely, the response you get may also be nicer, which confirms your original belief that Asians are friendly. Of course, just the opposite is also true. Suppose you believe that “young employees are slackers.” You are less likely to give a young employee high levels of responsibility or interesting and challenging assignments. The result may be that the young employee reporting to you may become increasingly bored at work and start goofing off, confirming your suspicions that young people are slackers!

Stereotypes persist because of a process called selective perception. Selective perception simply means that we pay selective attention to parts of the environment while ignoring other parts, which is particularly important during the Planning process. Our background, expectations, and beliefs will shape which events we notice and which events we ignore. For example, an executive’s functional background will affect the changes he or she perceives in the environment (Waller, et. al., 1995). Executives with a background in sales and marketing see the changes in the demand for their product, while executives with a background in information technology may more readily perceive the changes in the technology the company is using. Selective perception may also perpetuate stereotypes because we are less likely to notice events that go against our beliefs. A person who believes that men drive better than women may be more likely to notice women driving poorly than men driving poorly. As a result, a stereotype is maintained because information to the contrary may not even reach our brain!

Let’s say we noticed information that goes against our beliefs. What then? Unfortunately, this is no guarantee that we will modify our beliefs and prejudices. First, when we see examples that go against our stereotypes, we tend to come up with subcategories. For example, people who believe that women are more cooperative when they see a female who is assertive may classify her as a “career woman.” Therefore, the example to the contrary does not violate the stereotype and is explained as an exception to the rule (Higgins & Bargh, 1987). Or, we may simply discount the information. In one study, people in favor of and against the death penalty were shown two studies, one showing benefits for the death penalty while the other disconfirming any benefits. People rejected the study that went against their belief as methodologically inferior and ended up believing in their original position even more (Lord, et. al., 1979)! In other words, using data to debunk people’s beliefs or previously established opinions may not necessarily work, a tendency to guard against when conducting Planning and Controlling activities.

One other perceptual tendency that may affect work behavior is first impressions. The first impressions we form about people tend to have a lasting effect. In fact, first impressions, once formed, are surprisingly resilient to contrary information. Even if people are told that the first impressions were caused by inaccurate information, people hold on to them to a certain degree because once we form first impressions, they become independent from the evidence that created them (Ross, et. al., 1975). Therefore, any information we receive to the contrary does not serve the purpose of altering them. Imagine the first day that you met your colleague Anne. She treated you in a rude manner, and when you asked for her help, she brushed you off. You may form the belief that Anne is a rude and unhelpful person. Later on, you may hear that Anne’s mother is seriously ill, making Anne very stressed. In reality, she may have been unusually stressed on the day you first met her. If you had met her at a time when her stress level was lower, you could have thought that she is a really nice person. But chances are, your impression that she is rude and unhelpful will not change even when you hear about her mother. Instead, this new piece of information will be added to the first one: She is rude, unhelpful, and her mother is sick.

As a manager, you can protect yourself against this tendency by being aware of it and making a conscious effort to open your mind to new information. It would also be to your advantage to pay careful attention to the first impressions you create, particularly during job interviews.

Key Takeaway

Perception is how we make sense of our environment in response to environmental stimuli. While perceiving our surroundings, we go beyond the objective information available to us and our perception is affected by our values, needs, and emotions. There are many biases that affect human perception of objects, self, and others. When perceiving the physical environment, we fill in the gaps and extrapolate from the available information. When perceiving others, stereotypes influence our behavior. Stereotypes may lead to self-fulfilling prophecies. Stereotypes are perpetuated because of our tendency to pay selective attention to aspects of the environment and ignore information inconsistent with our beliefs. Understanding the perception process gives us clues to understanding human behavior.

Exercises

What are some of the typical errors, or optical illusions, that we experience when we observe physical objects?

What are the problems of false consensus error? How can managers deal with this tendency?

Describe a situation where perception biases have or could affect any of the P-O-L-C facets. Use an example you have experienced or observed, or, if you do not have such an example, create a hypothetical situation. How do we manage the fact that human beings develop stereotypes? Is there such as thing as a good stereotype? How would you prevent stereotypes from creating unfairness in management decisions?

Describe a self-fulfilling prophecy you have experienced or observed in action. Was the prophecy favorable or unfavorable? If unfavorable, how could the parties have chosen different behavior to produce a more positive outcome?

Fields, J. M., & Schuman, H. (1976). Public beliefs about the beliefs of the public. The Public Opinion Quarterly, 40 (4), 427–448.

Higgins, E. T., & Bargh, J. A. (1987). Social cognition and social perception. Annual Review of Psychology, 38, 369–425.

John, O. P., & Robins, R. W. (1994). Accuracy and bias in self-perception: Individual differences in self-enhancement and the role of narcissism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 206–219.

John, O. P., & Robins, R. W. (1994). Accuracy and bias in self-perception: Individual differences in self-enhancement and the role of narcissism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 206–219.

Kellman, P. J., & Shipley, T. F. (1991). A theory of visual interpolation in object perception. Cognitive Psychology, 23, 141–221.

Keltner, D., Ellsworth, P. C., & Edwards, K. (1993). Beyond simple pessimism: Effects of sadness and anger on social perception. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 740–752.

Lord, C. G., Ross, L., & Lepper, M. R. (1979) Biased assimilation and attitude polarization: The effects of prior theories on subsequently considered evidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 2098–2109.

Riskind, J. H., Moore, R., & Bowley, L. (1995). The looming of spiders: The fearful perceptual distortion of movement and menace. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 33, 171.

Ross, L., Greene, D., & House, P. (1977). The “false consensus effect”: An egocentric bias in social perception and attribution processes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 13, 279–301.

Ross, L., Lepper, M. R., & Hubbard, M. (1975). Perseverance in self-perception and social perception: Biased attributional processes in the debriefing paradigm. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32, 880–892.

Snyder, M., Tanke, E. D., & Berscheid, E. (1977). Social perception and interpersonal behavior: On the self-fulfilling nature of social stereotypes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 656–666.

Waller, M. J., Huber, G. P., & Glick, W. H. (1995). Functional background as a determinant of executives’ selective perception. Academy of Management Journal, 38, 943–974.

 

BTL refers to a series of marketing techniques known collectively as below-the-line marketing. Below-the-line marketing includes direct marketing by mail or email, sales promotion, marketing communications, exhibitions and telemarketing. Above-the-line marketing refers to advertising in media such as print, cinema, radio, television, outdoor posters and the Internet. Marketing campaigns that use both above-the-line and below-the-line techniques are known as through-the-line campaigns.

Agency Remuneration
The terms above-the-line and below-the-line originally referred to the way advertising agencies were remunerated for their services. Agencies received commission from the media in return for placing advertisements. The level of commission was sufficient to cover the costs of creating and producing the content for advertisements, as well as providing the agency with a fee and profit contribution. Agencies retained the commission and clients received the creative and production costs free. Because no commission was available on non-media activities, agencies charged clients for all creative and production costs.

Below-The-Line Agencies
The basis of agency remuneration has evolved, and advertising agencies now base their charges on a combination of fees and retained commission. However, clients have recognized the importance of below-the-line marketing and work with companies that offer specific services, such as direct marketing agencies, sales promotion agencies, marketing communications consultancies and telemarketing agencies.

Precision
Companies use below-the-line campaigns to reach audiences that are difficult or costly to contact through advertising media. A direct marketing campaign, for example, targeting a selected group of key customers with a limited-time offer represents a precise form of marketing with minimal waste. A sales promotion campaign offering discounts on a product in a single retail chain drives consumers to a series of defined locations, allowing precise measurement of the campaign’s effectiveness.

Integration
Combining above -the-line and below-the-line techniques in a single, integrated campaign can improve marketing effectiveness. An advertising campaign to launch a new product, combined with a retail incentive program and an in-store consumer promotion will encourage retailers to carry additional stocks of the advertised product. Through-the-line campaigns are most effective when advertising and below-the-line content use the same creative approach and communicate consistent messages across all media.

Multi-Channel Marketing
The increasing importance of social media is focusing attention on communicating with customers though multiple channels, rather than relying on individual above-the-line or below-the-line channels. Marketers also recognize the importance of building dialog with customers, rather than marketing through one-way communications.

 

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What Are the Different Types of Advertising?

Advertisers pay for advertising to accomplish a wide array of goals. Ad objectives generally boil down to long-term branding communication or short-term direct response advertising. Branding is about building and maintaining a reputation for your company that distinguishes it in the marketplace. Sales promos are short-term inducements to drive revenue or cash flow. Based on your company’s objectives, budget and target audience, you normally advertise through one or more types of media. Calculating your return on investment in dollars is difficult, but you need to establish measurable goals, such as a percentage increase in awareness, to evaluate success.

Broadcast Media
Television and radio are two traditional broadcast media long used in advertising. Television offers creative opportunities, a dynamic message and wide audience reach. It is typically the most expensive medium to advertise through, though. Because local affiliated stations normally serve a wide local audience, you also have to deal with waste when trying to target a small town marketplace. TV watchers normally have a negative attitude toward commercials and many have DVRs at their fingertips. Radio and TV both have fleeting messages, meaning they disappear once the commercial spot ends. Radio is relatively affordable for small businesses and allows for repetition and frequency. You don’t have the visual element of TV and you have to deal with a distracted audience, since most listeners are driving.

Print Media
Magazines and newspapers are the two traditional print media. Magazines offer a highly selective audience who is generally interested in ads closely related to the topic of the magazine. Visual imagery is also stronger in magazines than newspapers. You have little wasted since magazines are very niche and you can target a narrow customer segment. On the downside, magazines are costly and require long lead times, which limits timely promotions. They also have limited audience reach. Newspapers are very affordable for local businesses and allow you to target a geographic segment if you have a universal product or service. Newspapers are also viewed as a credible medium, which enhances ad acceptance. You can usually get an ad placed within a day or two of purchase. Declining circulation, a short shelf life and limited visual creativity are drawbacks.

Support Media
Support media include several options for message delivery than normally add to or expand campaigns delivered through more traditional media. Billboards, transits, bus benches, aerial, directories and trade publications are common support media. Each has pros and cons, but collectively, they offer ways to reach a wider audience in a local or regional market or to increase frequency of message exposure to targeted market segments.

Direct Marketing
Direct marketing is an interactive approach to advertising that has picked up in usage in the early 21st century. It includes direct mail, email and telemarketing. These are direct response efforts to create an ongoing dialogue or interaction with customers. Weekly or monthly email newsletters, for instance, allow you to keep your brand, products and other messages in front of prospects and customers. Telemarketing is a way to survey customers and offer new products, upgrades or renewals. Direct mail is the most common format of direct marketing where you send mailers or postcards to targeted customers promoting products, deals or promotions. Direct marketing has become more prominent because it allows for ease in tracking customer response rates and helps advertisers better measure return on investment.

Product Placement
Another newer advertising technique is product placement. This is where you offer compensation to a TV show, movie, video game or theme park to use your product while entertaining audiences. You could pay a TV show, for instance, to depict your product being used and discussed positive in a particular scene. This ad method is a way for companies to integrate ads with entertainment since customers have found ways to avoid messages delivered through more conventional media.

Internet
The Internet is used by online and offline companies to promote products or services. Banner ads, pop up ads, text ads and paid search placements are common forms. Banner, pop up and text ads are ways to present an image or message on a publisher’s website or on a number of websites through a third-party platform like Google’s Adwords program. Paid search placements, also known as cost-per-click advertising, is where you bid a certain amount to present your link and text message to users of search engines like Google and Yahoo!

Social Media
Businesses can also create different target groups, and send ads on social media platforms to users that would be most interested in their products and services. Targeting options can include targeting based on geographic location, buying tendencies, and other consumer behavior. One effective method of placing social media ads is known as retargeting, which focuses on website visitors that left without buying a product or service, or without signing up for some type of free offer like subscribing to a newsletter. Businesses can place a pixel on the visitor’s browser, and send targeted ads to that visitor as he or she browses other websites. Sponsored ads work in a similar way to retargeting, but the difference is that businesses pay to have these ads appear on specific websites that their target audience is likely to visit.

 

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834 Benefits of Sales Promotion

A successful promotion has the ability to nurture relationships with consumers through retention and engagement. Promotions can often shape the characteristics of brands, for example, McDonald?s Monopoly board is something

 

INTRODUCTION OF SALES PROMOTION
Sales promotion consists of a diverse collection of incentive tools, mostly short term, designed to stimulated quicker and/or greater purchase of particular product/service or the trend. Sales promotion is a process of persuading of sales to potential customer to buy the product.
The topic is about the sales promotion activity that makes awareness of the product of the company. The topic itself describe that how to increase the sales growth of the company product and it is also about the make awareness to the customer about the company products.
Sales promotion plays a very important role in the company. So in the current context every company makes sales promotion in different ways like advertisement by media, news paper , magazine.
Sales promotion is an important component of a small medium and large business’s overall marketing strategy, along with advertising, public relations, and personal selling. The American Marketing Association (AMA) defines sales promotion as “media and non-media marketing pressure applied for a predetermined, limited period of time in order to stimulate trial, increase consumer demand, or improve product quality.” But this definition does not capture all the elements of modern sales promotion. One should add that effective sales promotion increases the basic value of a product for a limited time and directly stimulates consumer purchasing, selling effectiveness, or the effort of the sales force. It can be used to inform, persuade, and remind target customers about the business and its marketing mix. Some common types of sales promotion include samples, coupons, sweepstakes, contests, in-store displays, trade shows, price-off deals, premiums, and rebates.
Businesses can target sales promotions at three different audiences: consumers, resellers, and the company’s own sales force. Sales promotion acts as a competitive weapon by providing an extra incentive for the target audience to purchase or support one brand over another. It is particularly effective in spurring product trial and unplanned purchases.
Most marketers believe that a given product or service has an established perceived price or value, and they use sales promotion to change this price-value relationship by increasing the value and/or lowering the price. Compared to the other components of the marketing mix (advertising, publicity, and personal selling), sales promotion usually operates on a shorter time line, uses a more rational appeal, returns a tangible or real value, fosters an immediate sale, and contributes highly to profitability.
In determining the relative importance to place on sales promotion in the overall marketing mix, a small business should consider its marketing budget, the stage of the product in its life cycle, the nature of competition in the market, the target of the promotion, and the nature of the product. For example, sales promotion and direct mail are particularly attractive alternatives when the marketing budget is limited, as it is for many small businesses. In addition, sales promotion can be an effective tool in a highly competitive market, when the objective is to convince retailers to carry a product or influence consumers to select it over those of competitors. Similarly, sales promotion is often used in the growth and maturity stages of the product life cycle to stimulate consumers and resellers to choose that product over the competition—rather than in the introduction stage, when mass advertising to build awareness might be more important. Finally, sales promotion tends to work best when it is applied to impulse items whose features can be judged at the point of purchase, rather than more complex, expensive items that might require hands-on demonstration.
Back in 1950s, it was said that doing business without sales promotion is like winking at a girl in the dark; you know you what you are doing, but nobody else does. The message was: crowded scenario of multiple ads even winking in broad daylight goes unnoticed. Since everyone is sales promotion, the idea is to do it with innovation ‘Come on, turn on the light, it pays to sales promotion. Today, in this complex world amidst heavy rush or everything, having a densely.

Sales promotion is of immense utility both to large and small business. There can be no doubt that sales promotion efforts would result in creation of additional sales. All forms of promotion of sale of goods is in one way or the other, supported by extensive advertising campaign. It is not possible to imagine survival of any business, which is in the business of “make and sell” in the absence of advertising efforts. Advertising has extended its coverage to include non-business enterprises also e.g.. Public Water Works advertises the need to preserve precious water and to cultivate the habit of drinking clean water free from any form of pollution. Countless illustrations can be provided wherein non-business enterprises have recognised the importance of advertising and their use it as a tool to promote ideas and services.

Sales promotion is an economic activity and it generates employment. Thousands of men and women are directly or indirectly, employed in professional sales promotion. sales promotion is an economic proposition. People who invest their money in sales promotion anticipate positive results. Hence, sales promotion must be result-oriented. Every newspaper or magazine survives on the advertisements that it receives. sales promotion are definite source of revenue to the publishers. Because of the advertisements inserted in newspapers and magazines, they are sold at lower price, which can be afforded by the public. Advertising is of paramount importance because it creates better-informed public by making available innumerable publications at an affordable price. Considering the response that advertisements generate, it can be stated that “advertising does not cost too much”.
In older to cut down production cost per unit there is a need to increase the total sales turnover. When overall sales increase, production cost per unit is automatically slashed and more people buy the goods. Apart from towering production costs, advertising also pays for entertainment and education through use of media like radio and TV.
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Consumer is the king in the market. He cannot be compelled to buy anything. At the most, he can be persuaded to patronize a certain brand. It is here that advertising plays a prominent role.
There is no standard format to be followed to make advertising liked by every person. Advertising is a creative field. Individual likes and dislikes determine success of advertising or its failure. Advertising scores over personal selling because it provides freedom of choice to the consumer. Decision to make purchases is independently arrived at by the consumers. No civilized society can record constant progress and ensure better standard of living to its people in the absence of information and education provided by advertising
CONSUMER PROMOTIONS
Consumer sales promotions are steered toward the ultimate product users—typically individual shoppers in the local market—but the same techniques can be used to promote products sold by one business to another, such as computer systems, cleaning supplies, and machinery. In contrast, trade sales promotions target resellers—wholesalers and retailers—who carry the marketer’s product. Following are some of the key techniques used in consumer-oriented sales promotions.
PRICE DEALS: A consumer price deal saves the buyer money when a product is purchased. The main types of price deals include discounts, bonus pack deals, refunds or rebates, and coupons. Price deals are usually intended to encourage trial use of a new product or line extension, to recruit new buyers for a mature product, or to convince existing customers to increase their purchases, accelerate their use, or purchase multiple units. Price deals work most effectively when price is the consumer’s foremost criterion or when brand loyalty is low.
Buyers may learn about price discounts either at the point of sale or through advertising. At the point of sale, price reductions may be posted on the package, on signs near the product, or in storefront windows. Many types of advertisements can be used to notify consumers of upcoming discounts, including fliers and newspaper and television ads.
Price discounts are especially common in the food industry, where local supermarkets run weekly specials. Price discounts may be initiated by the manufacturer, the retailer, or the distributor. For instance, a manufacturer may “pre-price” a product and then convince the retailer to participate in this short-term discount through extra incentives. For price reduction strategies to be effective, they must have the support of all distributors in the channel. Existing customers perceive discounts as rewards and often respond by buying in larger quantities.
Another type of price deal is the bonus pack or banded pack. When a bonus pack is offered, an extra amount of the product is free when a standard size of the product is bought at the regular price. This technique is routinely used in the marketing of cleaning products, food, and health and beauty aids to introduce a new or larger size. A bonus pack rewards present users but may have little appeal to users of competitive brands. A banded pack offer is when two or more units of a product are sold at a reduction of the regular single-unit price. Sometimes the products are physically banded together, such as in toothbrush and toothpaste offers.
A refund or rebate promotion is an offer by a marketer to return a certain amount of money when the product is purchased alone or in combination with other products. Refunds aim to increase the quantity or frequency of purchase, to encourage customers to “load up” on the product. This strategy dampens competition by temporarily taking consumers out of the market, stimulates the purchase of postponable goods such as major appliances, and creates on-shelf excitement by encouraging special displays. Refunds and rebates are generally viewed as a reward for purchase, and they appear to build brand loyalty rather than diminish it.
Coupons are legal certificates offered by manufacturers and retailers. They grant specified savings on selected products when presented for redemption at the point of purchase. Manufacturers sustain the cost of advertising and distributing their coupons, redeeming their face values, and paying retailers a handling fee. Retailers who offer double or triple the amount of the coupon shoulder the extra cost. Retailers who offer their own coupons incur the total cost, including paying the face value. In this way, retail coupons are equivalent to a cents-off deal.
Manufacturers disseminate coupons in many ways. They may be delivered directly by mail, dropped door to door, or distributed through a central location such as a shopping mall. Coupons may also be distributed through the media—magazines, newspapers, Sunday supplements, or free-standing inserts (FSI) in newspapers. Coupons can be inserted into, attached to, or printed on a package, or they may be distributed by a retailer who uses them to generate store traffic or to tie in with a manufacturer’s promotional tactic. Retailer-sponsored coupons are typically distributed through print advertising or at the point of sale. Sometimes, though, specialty retailers or newly opened retailers will distribute coupons door to door or through direct mail.
CONTESTS/SWEEPSTAKES: The main difference between contests and sweepstakes is that contests require entrants to perform a task or demonstrate a skill that is judged in order to be deemed a winner, while sweepstakes involve a random drawing or chance contest that may or may not have an entry requirement. At one time, contests were more commonly used as sales promotions, mostly due to legal restrictions on gambling that many marketers feared might apply to sweepstakes. But the use of sweepstakes as a promotional tactic has grown dramatically in recent decades, partly because of legal changes and partly because of their lower cost. Administering a contest once cost about $350 per thousand entries, compared to just $2.75 to $3.75 per thousand entries in a sweepstake. Furthermore, participation in contests is very low compared to sweepstakes, since they require some sort of skill or ability.
SPECIAL EVENTS: According to the consulting firm International Events Group (IEG), businesses spend over $2 billion annually to link their products with everything from jazz festivals to golf tournaments to stock car races. In fact, large companies like RJR Nabisco and Anheuser-Busch have special divisions that handle nothing but special events. Special events marketing offers a number of advantages. First, events tend to attract a homogeneous audience that is very appreciative of the sponsors. Therefore, if a product fits well with the event and its audience, the impact of the sales promotion will be high. Second, event sponsorship often builds support among employees—who may receive acknowledgment for their participation—and within the trade. Finally, compared to producing a series of ads, event management is relatively simple. Many elements of event sponsorship are prepackaged and reusable, such as booths, displays, and ads. Special events marketing is available to small businesses, as well, through sponsorship of events on the community level.
PREMIUM: A premium is tangible compensation that is given as incentive for performing a particular act—usually buying a product. The premium may be given for free, or may be offered to consumers for a significantly reduced price. Some examples of premiums include receiving a prize in a cereal box or a free garden tool for visiting the grand opening of a hardware store. Incentives that are given for free at the time of purchase are called direct premiums. These offers provide instant gratification, plus there is no confusion about returning coupons or box tops, or saving bar codes or proofs of purchase.
Other types of direct premiums include traffic builders, door openers, and referral premiums. The garden tool is an example of a traffic-builder premium—an incentive to lure a prospective buyer to a store. A door-opener premium is directed to customers at home or to business people in their offices. For example, a homeowner may receive a free clock radio for allowing an insurance agent to enter their home and listening to his sales pitch. Similarly, an electronics manufacturer might offer free software to an office manager who agrees to an on-site demonstration. The final category of direct premiums, referral premiums, rewards the purchaser for referring the seller to other possible customers.
Mail premiums, unlike direct premiums, require the customer to perform some act in order to obtain a premium through return mail. An example might be a limited edition toy car offered by a marketer in exchange for one or more proofs-of-purchase and a payment covering the cost of the item plus handling. The premium is still valuable to the consumer because they cannot readily buy the item for the same amount.

CONTINUITY PROGRAMS: Continuity programs retain brand users over a long time period by offering ongoing motivation or incentives. Continuity programs demand that consumers keep buying the product in order to get the premium in the future. Trading stamps, popularized in the 1950s and 1960s, are prime examples. Consumers usually received one stamp for every dime spent at a participating store. The stamp company provided redemption centers where the stamps were traded for merchandise. A catalog listing the quantity of stamps required for each item was available at the participating stores. Today, airlines’ frequent-flyer clubs, hotels’ frequent-traveler plans, retailers’ frequent-shopper programs, and bonus-paying credit cards are common continuity programs. When competing brands have reached parity in terms of price and service, continuity programs sometimes prove a deciding factor among those competitors. By rewarding long-standing customers for their loyalty, continuity programs also reduce the threat of new competitors entering a market.

SAMPLING: A sign of a successful marketer is getting the product into the hands of the consumer. Sometimes, particularly when a product is new or is not a market leader, an effective strategy is giving a sample product to the consumer, either free or for a small fee. But in order for sampling to change people’s future purchase decisions, the product must have benefits or features that will be obvious during the trial.
There are several means of disseminating samples to consumers. The most popular has been through the mail, but increases in postage costs and packaging requirements have made this method less attractive. An alternative is door-to-door distribution, particularly when the items are bulky and when reputable distribution organizations exist. This method permits selective sampling of neighborhoods, dwellings, or even people. Another method is distributing samples in conjunction with advertising. An ad may include a coupon that the consumer can mail in for the product, or it may include an address or phone number for ordering. Direct sampling can be achieved through prime media using scratch-and-sniff cards and slim foil pouches, or through retailers using special displays or a person hired to hand out samples to passing customers. Though this last technique may build goodwill for the retailer, some retailers resent the inconvenience and require high payments for their cooperation.
A final form of sample distribution deals with specialty types of sampling. For instance, some companies specialize in packing samples together for delivery to homogeneous consumer groups, such as newlyweds, new parents, students, or tourists. Such packages may be delivered at hospitals, hotels, or dormitories and include a number of different types of products.

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Retail Merchandising: Set Up Your Store For Retail Success

Retail merchandising is necessary for brick and mortar retailers to be able to compete with online shopping sites. And yet, a lot of retailers would be hard-pressed to answer the question, what is retail merchandising? Retail merchandising covers everything from how you visually arrange your merchandise to the traffic patterns in your store, how you display items to promote add-on sales, to signage, and for apparel retailers – the power of the fitting room. It is all behind the scenes data collection that proves what is effective and what isn’t. This post serves as a tactical primer for retailers looking for visual merchandising strategies and ideas.

Retail merchandising, when done right, removes confusion of what to buy from shoppers, encourages a customer to shop in your store rather than in another, and most importantly, converts more shoppers into customers.
It’s a coordinated effort that keeps you from carrying a ton of SKUs, slapping them on a wall or table, and expecting them to sell. Too many choices make shoppers feel overwhelmed.
Why should merchandisng matter to you? The quicker you can cut down on a shopper’s choices, the quicker you can make them relax and consider purchasing your merchandise. The less time you devote to how you arrange your store and display your products, the more overwhelmed your shoppers will feel when trying to know what to look at. And an overwhelmed shopper never becomes a customer – they just leave.

You can attract as many new bodies to your shop as you want, but if they discover a hodgepodge of merchandise that takes too much to figure out, if the meet with too much frustration trying to find what they were looking for, or if they encounter only flat or uninteresting displays, your merchandise will sit.  Merchandise that sits for too long is like spoiled milk; it starts to smell and loses all value until it is thrown out.

Your shoppers shouldn’t notice great merchandising, but it should focus their eyes on a display. The lighting should draw them toward a fixture; the signage should pique their curiosity, and together make them want to buy more.

In order to implement a strong retail merchandising plan, you have to have someone who understands the science of which colors are in fashion, what trends they can tie into, the cause and effect of fast-moving or dead products, as well as someone who has the creativity to create the excitement of serendipity when shopping in your brick and mortar store.
At its most basic a retail merchandising plan should include:
An overall plan of how traffic will move through your store.
A department plan that changes with the seasons and holidays.
A budget for store fixtures, props, lighting, and signage.
A merchandise planning system which will help maximize turn, limit out-of-stocks, increase margins, and minimize markdowns.
An open-to-buy system and predictive analytics to determine the variety of merchandise available to shoppers.
The time needed to merchandise a store will vary due to a variety of circumstances including the total number of SKUS, special requirements for individual displays, especially those needing security, as well as your ability to move your fixtures easily. Large stores have entire teams devoted to the four separate areas of retail merchandising while single-operator locations struggle to do something more than just get the merchandise out and priced.
The thing to remember is that there is no merchandise in your store that a customer can’t purchase online.

Therefore, when they do drive to your store, they expect to get something more than they can glean off a website. That’s where the art and science of retail merchandising gives brick and mortar retailers an advantage over their online competitors.
To begin merchandising your store, always start with the front doors, for this is the first chance your shoppers have to understand the alien planet that is your store.
Newcomers hate to have to ask where something is. Is your directional signage easy to understand and well-placed?
People like to shop in bright energetic spaces. Is there adequate lighting to achieve this?
With shoppers wanting to proceed counter-clockwise through a store, is the counter location causing friction between those browsing and those queuing up to pay?
There should be visual barriers between departments to make a large store seem more intimate. Are those backdrops or barriers interesting enough to draw shoppers to them?
Displays are your silent salespeople because they can show an entire system or series of add-ons to lift average ticket. Are the relationships in your displays obvious?
Well-placed, well-worded signs help intrigue, answer questions, and entice shoppers to look, touch or hold. Do yours?
Apparel stores best chance at converting lookers to buyers is with bright, air-conditioned and clean fitting rooms. Are yours up to the challenge?
You’re always working on three things with your plan: the current promotion or event, the one upcoming, and a review of the one just passed. That’s why it’s always best to set up a full year calendar as part of your retail merchandising plan noting holidays, seasons, local events, and promotions.
If you’re looking to really master retail merchandising, there are several degree programs where you can go to deepen your knowledge and skills.
Visual Merchandising: Curating Your Brand Experience
Visual merchandising is everything a shopper sees at your store that hopefully leads to a remarkable shopping experience. It is the unspoken language retailers use to communicate with their customers. In the advent of omnichannel retailing, it also connects to the online brand experience to provide a seamless, consistent look and feel between the web and the physical store.
how to visual merchandise your retail store
It’s easy to confuse the broader retail merchandising plan with visual merchandising. But visual merchandising is only that part of the retail merchandising plan which includes rearranging merchandise, shelving, and fixtures to maximize sales as well as maintaining the cleanliness and functionality of the store fixtures, signage, and lights.
So is visual merchandising the same as displays? No, visual merchandising is more of a high-level view that includes eye-catching visual displays but continues to to lead the customer through the entire store. Specific product displays focus on just one department or brand.
One thing many retailers miss is that visual merchandising is a team effort; you must train all store associates about visual display standards and maintenance. Otherwise, they’ll simply say It’s not my job or refuse to sell a shirt off a mannequin.
A visual merchandiser is responsible for creating an environment that sells, one that allows shoppers to relax and consider all your store has to offer by crafting areas of discovery. The best visual merchandisers creatively design displays, create planograms for window displays, create both display and directional signage, buy fixtures, and generally decide what goes where, why, and for how long.
In the end, they must be both business savvy and creative in constructing an environment that stimulates a consumer’s desire to buy what they came in for as well as the add-ons they didn’t know they needed…and all at full price.
Here are 7 tips and tricks for visual merchandising your brick and mortar store:
Great merchandising invites shoppers into a store, so avoid putting a display table perpendicular just inside your entrance.
Moving a product from its regular shelf location to a featured end cap has been proven to lead to an average sales increase of 25%, so regularly move your products around.
Digital displays can help tell a fuller, specific product story but can also detract customers from the products they are near, so make sure your digital displays are supporting but not the main show. If conversion doesn’t improve, change messaging or location.
Look through your whole store for distractions. Are there too many messages to try thisor do that or buy this or look here? Streamline a shopper’s experience so they linger, not bolt for the door.
Select fixtures with wheels so you have unlimited opportunities to change your entire store around quickly and efficiently.
Feature your best merchandise at the front of the store as shopper interest wanes the further they go into the middle of a store.
Put sale items in the back so thrifty consumers have to move through your store to get to them.
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Great Displays: Stop Your Customers In Their Tracks
A great display takes the customer from either not noticing or feeling stupid about a product.  It gives them the bright idea about how it would look in their homes, how they could use it in their business, how they would feel wearing it, and especially how they could smartly combine several items.  Displays help build sales because they stop the customer in their tracks and persuades them to select an item they hadn’t necessarily considered. Properly built merchandising displays give them hope that what they purchase will deliver more than just a price.
the power of great display merchandising in a retail storeSloppy or poorly coordinated displays rob your store of its ability to make additional profit. I saw an end cap at a grocery store that had Oreos, toilet paper, and bleach. You never want a shopper to scratch their head, trying to figure out why your items are displayed the way they are.
For that reason, you want to know the different types of displays to choose from:
Five Types of Displays
1. Complementary displays that say, This makes this better.
2. Coordinated displays that say, These are all the items you need for this to work.
3. Creatively constructed displays of one product. Think 6-packs of lemonade stacked as a school bus.
4. Product in use displays that show the product in its environment. Think mixer, spatulas, and cookie cutters on a countertop or lawn mower, edger and fertilizer on grass sod.
5. Surprise prop displays where you add a totally unrelated item to your product. Think a pink stuffed toy pig sitting on the chair next to the BBQ.Welcome customers like they’re coming to your home.

Is there a difference between what should you do when setting up your display windows, display cases, shelf or table displays? Not really, the key is to create a story using different items that all work together.

Here’s how to create effective and interesting retail displays:

1. Begin by asking yourself these four questions:
1. Is it high profit? Will it deliver more profit if you pull it off the shelf and feature it?
2. Is it a limited-time item that can only sell for a short period?
3. Is it a want, an item that a customer might covet in their heart of hearts but probably doesn’t have on their shopping list?
4. Is it something that can be bundled?
2. Put new arrivals first
3. Use a color story of contrasting colors
4. Vary heights and add at least one prop to add interest
5. Light your display like it’s show time
6. Add well-placed signs
7. Keep it simple. Don’t group more than five different products together.

While window displays in Manhattan, London and Chicago are legendary due to their scale and resources, anyone can do a display with very little expenditure of money as long as you follow the seven step approach outlined above.
With labor scheduling budget cuts, remember your displays are your silent salespeople. A well crafted display grabs a shopper’s interest and shows rather than tells.
You might be tempted to get your whole staff involved in visual merchandising and displays. Avoid this temptation unless you’re willing to teach them everything about your retail merchandising and display plans. Otherwise, they’ll get the idea to create a display when the store is slow, and the result won’t be as well thought-out as you’d like.
There can be exceptions of course, so if you find someone interested and creative, give them some training about how you are trying to focus the customer’s eyes, why you choose the colors you do, and the different heights you can use to achieve a longer linger time from the casual browser.
Three things you can teach your retail associates about displays:
When something is sold off a display, put another item on it. You never want naked mannequins or empty tables.
If items come from another department, write down where they came from so other employees know where to find them, so they won’t tell a shopper I don’t know.
Take a picture of each display so everyone in the department knows what it should look like and can keep it that way.
Store Signage: Direct, Inform and Inspire.
There are three types of signage in a retail store: directional, informative, and invitational. The first is used to identify what is found in various departments. The second is just like it sounds, signs that inform like customer service, returns, BOPIS, and even layaway or custom order signs. The third is used to entice a shopper to come closer, to point out benefits over features of a display of products, and even to make a shopper laugh.
great retail store signage example
When you are thinking about how to create store directional or informative signage for your brick and mortar store, begin by thinking like a new shopper to your store.
What would they be most interested in knowing?
What if they wanted to go to the bathroom?
What would they need to know to get to the department they are interested in?
Then write down the ten most common questions you receive in a day. I’ll bet many are either looking for directions or store information.
Next ask your staff what are the most common questions they receive every day that are not product-specific.
Now you can prioritize all those concerns and make signs that address the most important ones first.
Invitational signs are rare in many retailers’ stores because they take a bit more work than slapping a sale price on day-glo yellow posterboard, but they can deliver many more profitable sales. You find these outside on sidewalk A-frames, and in both window and product displays.
All three types of signs share the same design characteristics and here’s how to create them.

The nine best practices for creating signage:

1. Find a color palette and stick with it.
2. Use big enough font so no one has to squint to read it.
3. Keep the word count short.
4. Make sure the sign applies only to what it is in front of, on top of, or next to.
5. Limit your use of the word No. For example, instead of No Refunds after 14 days say Refunds available within 14 days.
6. Explain benefits over features. For example, instead of 39 Herbs and Minerals say Thickens Balding Hair.
7. Use humor. For example in a floral shop, ask How Mad Is She?
8. Use analogies. For example declare, Like A Shot of Espresso For Your Skin!
9. Test signage for clarity by using your desktop printer before committing to having them professionally printed.

The five best practices to avoid for your signage :

1. Don’t allow hand-drawn signs.
2. Don’t use the words Do Not.
3. Don’t be English-centric if you’re in an area that has a high population that speaks another language. Add translations.
4. Don’t use ten identical signs when one will do the job.
5. Don’t just have a sale price; show the original and the percentage discount.

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Fitting Rooms: Create A Welcoming Experience
I’m sure some of you will be surprised that fitting rooms are considered part of retail merchandising, but when it comes to clothing, the sale is only made once someone tries it on. The fitting room is a huge advantage for brick and mortar retailers. An Accenture study revealed 70% of online apparel is returned due to fit issues. However, when the apparel is tried on in-store, that drops to the single digits.retail store fitting room is part of retail merchandising
The proof of your retail merchandising comes together in the fitting room which moves your shopper from browser to customer. You are taking the vision you created in your store that stimulated their buying sense and fulfilling it in your 5’x8’ fitting room.
Just like a well-designed display, the fitting room experience has to continue the engagement from the salesfloor, so here are three tips to make that happen:
Keep the fitting room floors spotless – pin, hanger, and clothing free.
Provide lighting that helps the selling process by making the customer look good. Backlit mirrors are the best.
Install good quality mirrors inside the dressing room so the shopper looks realistic.
And always remember…
If a shopper has to wait long, they’ll walk away.
If the room has bad lighting, conversions will suffer.
If the room doesn’t have air conditioning, it will be either too hot or too cold – never good for half-naked people to feel uncomfortable.
If you abandon them, they’ll get frustrated and leave.
You’ll have to work with your Director of Operations and store managers to make sure all associates are properly trained to monitor and service the fitting room visitors to increase conversion rates.
Retail Merchandising: Pulling It All Together
Retail Merchandising refers to all the activities both seen and unseen which contribute to the sale of products in your store. It includes the visual merchandising which creates the environment to sell, the displays which stops shoppers in their tracks, the signage that directs, informs, or inspires them, and the fitting rooms where the final decisions are often made.
how to visually merchandise a brick and mortar store
Use these tips and tricks as well as best practices to merchandise your store like a pro. And if you’d like me to come speak to your group about how to make displays that convert along with signage that entices, visit my speaking page.

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Marketing tips, ideas, tricks, advice

 

 

2.4 Perception

2.4 Perception

 

Learning Objectives

Understand the influence of biases in the process of perception.

Describe how we perceive visual objects and how these tendencies may affect our behavior.

Describe the biases of self-perception.

Describe the biases inherent in our perceptions of other people.

Our behavior is not only a function of our personality and values but also of the situation. We interpret our environment, formulate responses, and act accordingly. Perception may be defined as the process by which individuals detect and interpret environmental stimuli. What makes human perception so interesting is that we do not solely respond to the stimuli in our environment. We go beyond the information that is present in our environment, pay selective attention to some aspects of the environment, and ignore other elements that may be immediately apparent to other people.

Our perception of the environment is not entirely rational. For example, have you ever noticed that while glancing at a newspaper or a news Web site, information that is especially interesting or important to you jumps out of the page and catches your eye? If you are a sports fan, while scrolling down the pages, you may immediately see a news item describing the latest success of your team. If you are the mother of a picky eater, an advice column on toddler feeding may be the first thing you see when looking at the page. If you were recently turned down for a loan, an item of financial news may jump out at you. Therefore, what we see in the environment is a function of what we value, our needs, our fears, and our emotions(Higgins & Bargh, 1987; Keltner, et. al., 1993). In fact, what we see in the environment may be objectively flat out wrong because of such mental tendencies. For example, one experiment showed that when people who were afraid of spiders were shown spiders, they inaccurately thought that the spider was moving toward them (Riskind, et. al., 1995).

In this section, we will describe some common perceptual tendencies we engage in when perceiving objects or other people and the consequences of such perceptions. Our coverage of these perceptual biases is not exhaustive—there are many other biases and tendencies that can be found in the way people perceive stimuli.

Visual Perception

Our visual perception definitely goes beyond the physical information available to us; this phenomenon is commonly referred to as “optical illusions.” Artists and designers of everything from apparel to cars to home interiors make use of optical illusions to enhance the look of the product. Managers rely on their visual perception to form their opinions about people and objects around them and to make sense of data presented in graphical form. Therefore, understanding how our visual perception may be biased is important.

First, we extrapolate from the information available to us. Take a look at the first figure. The white triangle you see in the middle is not really there, but we extrapolate from the information available to us and see it there. Similarly, when we look at objects that are partially blocked, we see the whole (Kellman & Shipley, 1991).

Now, look at the next figure. What do you see? Most people look at this figure and see two faces or a goblet, depending on which color—black or white—they focus upon. Our visual perception is often biased because we do not perceive objects in isolation. The contrast between our focus of attention and the remainder of the environment may make an object appear bigger or smaller.

This principle is shown here in the third figure. At first glance, the circle on the left may appear bigger, but they are the same size. This is due to the visual comparison of the middle circle on the left with its surrounding circles, whereas the middle circle on the right is compared with the bigger circles surrounding it.

How do these tendencies influence behavior in organizations? The fact that our visual perception is faulty means that managers should not always take what they see at face value. Let’s say that you do not like one of your peers and you think that you saw this person surfing the Web during work hours. Are you absolutely sure, or are you simply filling the gaps? Have you really seen this person surf unrelated Web sites, or is it possible that the person was searching for work-related purposes? The tendency to fill in the gaps also causes our memory to be faulty. Imagine that you have been at a meeting where several people made comments that you did not agree with. After the meeting, you may attribute most of these comments to people you did not like. In other words, you may twist the reality to make your memories more consistent with your opinions of people.

The tendency to compare and contrast objects and people to each other also causes problems. For example, if you are a manager who has been given an office much smaller than the other offices on the floor, you may feel that your workspace is crowded and uncomfortable. If the same office is surrounded by smaller offices, you may actually feel that your office is comfortable and roomy. In short, our biased visual perception may lead to the wrong inferences about the people and objects around us.

Self-Perception

Human beings are prone to errors and biases when perceiving themselves. Moreover, the type of bias people have depends on their personality. Many people suffer from self-enhancement bias. This is the tendency to overestimate our performance and capabilities and see ourselves in a more positive light than others see us. People who have a narcissistic personality are particularly subject to this bias, but many others also have this bias to varying degrees (John & Robins, 1994). At the same time, other people have the opposing extreme, which may be labeled as self-effacement bias (or modesty bias). This is the tendency to underestimate our performance and capabilities and to see events in a way that puts ourselves in a more negative light. We may expect that people with low self-esteem may be particularly prone to making this error. These tendencies have real consequences for behavior in organizations. For example, people who suffer from extreme levels of self-enhancement tendencies may not understand why they are not getting promoted or rewarded, while those who have a tendency to self-efface may project low confidence and take more blame for their failures than necessary.

When human beings perceive themselves, they are also subject to the false consensus error. Simply put, we overestimate how similar we are to other people (Fields & Schuman, 1976; Ross, et. al., 1977). We assume that whatever quirks we have are shared by a larger number of people than in reality. People who take office supplies home, tell white lies to their boss or colleagues, or take credit for other people’s work to get ahead may genuinely feel that these behaviors are more common than they really are. The problem for behavior in organizations is that, when people believe that a behavior is common and normal, they may repeat the behavior more freely. Under some circumstances, this may lead to a high level of unethical or even illegal behaviors.

Social Perception

How we perceive other people in our environment is also shaped by our biases. Moreover, how we perceive others will shape our behavior, which in turn will shape the behavior of the person we are interacting with.

One of the factors biasing our perception is stereotypes. Stereotypes are generalizations based on a group characteristic. For example, believing that women are more cooperative than men or that men are more assertive than women are stereotypes. Stereotypes may be positive, negative, or neutral. In the abstract, stereotyping is an adaptive function—we have a natural tendency to categorize the information around us to make sense of our environment. Just imagine how complicated life would be if we continually had to start from scratch to understand each new situation and each new person we encountered! What makes stereotypes potentially discriminatory and a perceptual bias is the tendency to generalize from a group to a particular individual. If the belief that men are more assertive than women leads to choosing a man over an equally qualified female candidate for a position, the decision will be biased, unfair, and potentially illegal.

Stereotypes often create a situation called self-fulfilling prophecy. This happens when an established stereotype causes one to behave in a certain way, which leads the other party to behave in a way that confirms the stereotype (Snyder, et. al., 1977). If you have a stereotype such as “Asians are friendly,” you are more likely to be friendly toward an Asian person. Because you are treating the other person more nicely, the response you get may also be nicer, which confirms your original belief that Asians are friendly. Of course, just the opposite is also true. Suppose you believe that “young employees are slackers.” You are less likely to give a young employee high levels of responsibility or interesting and challenging assignments. The result may be that the young employee reporting to you may become increasingly bored at work and start goofing off, confirming your suspicions that young people are slackers!

Stereotypes persist because of a process called selective perception. Selective perception simply means that we pay selective attention to parts of the environment while ignoring other parts, which is particularly important during the Planning process. Our background, expectations, and beliefs will shape which events we notice and which events we ignore. For example, an executive’s functional background will affect the changes he or she perceives in the environment (Waller, et. al., 1995). Executives with a background in sales and marketing see the changes in the demand for their product, while executives with a background in information technology may more readily perceive the changes in the technology the company is using. Selective perception may also perpetuate stereotypes because we are less likely to notice events that go against our beliefs. A person who believes that men drive better than women may be more likely to notice women driving poorly than men driving poorly. As a result, a stereotype is maintained because information to the contrary may not even reach our brain!

Let’s say we noticed information that goes against our beliefs. What then? Unfortunately, this is no guarantee that we will modify our beliefs and prejudices. First, when we see examples that go against our stereotypes, we tend to come up with subcategories. For example, people who believe that women are more cooperative when they see a female who is assertive may classify her as a “career woman.” Therefore, the example to the contrary does not violate the stereotype and is explained as an exception to the rule (Higgins & Bargh, 1987). Or, we may simply discount the information. In one study, people in favor of and against the death penalty were shown two studies, one showing benefits for the death penalty while the other disconfirming any benefits. People rejected the study that went against their belief as methodologically inferior and ended up believing in their original position even more (Lord, et. al., 1979)! In other words, using data to debunk people’s beliefs or previously established opinions may not necessarily work, a tendency to guard against when conducting Planning and Controlling activities.

One other perceptual tendency that may affect work behavior is first impressions. The first impressions we form about people tend to have a lasting effect. In fact, first impressions, once formed, are surprisingly resilient to contrary information. Even if people are told that the first impressions were caused by inaccurate information, people hold on to them to a certain degree because once we form first impressions, they become independent from the evidence that created them (Ross, et. al., 1975). Therefore, any information we receive to the contrary does not serve the purpose of altering them. Imagine the first day that you met your colleague Anne. She treated you in a rude manner, and when you asked for her help, she brushed you off. You may form the belief that Anne is a rude and unhelpful person. Later on, you may hear that Anne’s mother is seriously ill, making Anne very stressed. In reality, she may have been unusually stressed on the day you first met her. If you had met her at a time when her stress level was lower, you could have thought that she is a really nice person. But chances are, your impression that she is rude and unhelpful will not change even when you hear about her mother. Instead, this new piece of information will be added to the first one: She is rude, unhelpful, and her mother is sick.

As a manager, you can protect yourself against this tendency by being aware of it and making a conscious effort to open your mind to new information. It would also be to your advantage to pay careful attention to the first impressions you create, particularly during job interviews.

Key Takeaway

Perception is how we make sense of our environment in response to environmental stimuli. While perceiving our surroundings, we go beyond the objective information available to us and our perception is affected by our values, needs, and emotions. There are many biases that affect human perception of objects, self, and others. When perceiving the physical environment, we fill in the gaps and extrapolate from the available information. When perceiving others, stereotypes influence our behavior. Stereotypes may lead to self-fulfilling prophecies. Stereotypes are perpetuated because of our tendency to pay selective attention to aspects of the environment and ignore information inconsistent with our beliefs. Understanding the perception process gives us clues to understanding human behavior.

Exercises

What are some of the typical errors, or optical illusions, that we experience when we observe physical objects?

What are the problems of false consensus error? How can managers deal with this tendency?

Describe a situation where perception biases have or could affect any of the P-O-L-C facets. Use an example you have experienced or observed, or, if you do not have such an example, create a hypothetical situation. How do we manage the fact that human beings develop stereotypes? Is there such as thing as a good stereotype? How would you prevent stereotypes from creating unfairness in management decisions?

Describe a self-fulfilling prophecy you have experienced or observed in action. Was the prophecy favorable or unfavorable? If unfavorable, how could the parties have chosen different behavior to produce a more positive outcome?

Fields, J. M., & Schuman, H. (1976). Public beliefs about the beliefs of the public. The Public Opinion Quarterly, 40 (4), 427–448.

Higgins, E. T., & Bargh, J. A. (1987). Social cognition and social perception. Annual Review of Psychology, 38, 369–425.

John, O. P., & Robins, R. W. (1994). Accuracy and bias in self-perception: Individual differences in self-enhancement and the role of narcissism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 206–219.

John, O. P., & Robins, R. W. (1994). Accuracy and bias in self-perception: Individual differences in self-enhancement and the role of narcissism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 206–219.

Kellman, P. J., & Shipley, T. F. (1991). A theory of visual interpolation in object perception. Cognitive Psychology, 23, 141–221.

Keltner, D., Ellsworth, P. C., & Edwards, K. (1993). Beyond simple pessimism: Effects of sadness and anger on social perception. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 740–752.

Lord, C. G., Ross, L., & Lepper, M. R. (1979) Biased assimilation and attitude polarization: The effects of prior theories on subsequently considered evidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 2098–2109.

Riskind, J. H., Moore, R., & Bowley, L. (1995). The looming of spiders: The fearful perceptual distortion of movement and menace. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 33, 171.

Ross, L., Greene, D., & House, P. (1977). The “false consensus effect”: An egocentric bias in social perception and attribution processes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 13, 279–301.

Ross, L., Lepper, M. R., & Hubbard, M. (1975). Perseverance in self-perception and social perception: Biased attributional processes in the debriefing paradigm. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32, 880–892.

Snyder, M., Tanke, E. D., & Berscheid, E. (1977). Social perception and interpersonal behavior: On the self-fulfilling nature of social stereotypes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 656–666.

Waller, M. J., Huber, G. P., & Glick, W. H. (1995). Functional background as a determinant of executives’ selective perception. Academy of Management Journal, 38, 943–974.

 

BTL refers to a series of marketing techniques known collectively as below-the-line marketing. Below-the-line marketing includes direct marketing by mail or email, sales promotion, marketing communications, exhibitions and telemarketing. Above-the-line marketing refers to advertising in media such as print, cinema, radio, television, outdoor posters and the Internet. Marketing campaigns that use both above-the-line and below-the-line techniques are known as through-the-line campaigns.

Agency Remuneration
The terms above-the-line and below-the-line originally referred to the way advertising agencies were remunerated for their services. Agencies received commission from the media in return for placing advertisements. The level of commission was sufficient to cover the costs of creating and producing the content for advertisements, as well as providing the agency with a fee and profit contribution. Agencies retained the commission and clients received the creative and production costs free. Because no commission was available on non-media activities, agencies charged clients for all creative and production costs.

Below-The-Line Agencies
The basis of agency remuneration has evolved, and advertising agencies now base their charges on a combination of fees and retained commission. However, clients have recognized the importance of below-the-line marketing and work with companies that offer specific services, such as direct marketing agencies, sales promotion agencies, marketing communications consultancies and telemarketing agencies.

Precision
Companies use below-the-line campaigns to reach audiences that are difficult or costly to contact through advertising media. A direct marketing campaign, for example, targeting a selected group of key customers with a limited-time offer represents a precise form of marketing with minimal waste. A sales promotion campaign offering discounts on a product in a single retail chain drives consumers to a series of defined locations, allowing precise measurement of the campaign’s effectiveness.

Integration
Combining above -the-line and below-the-line techniques in a single, integrated campaign can improve marketing effectiveness. An advertising campaign to launch a new product, combined with a retail incentive program and an in-store consumer promotion will encourage retailers to carry additional stocks of the advertised product. Through-the-line campaigns are most effective when advertising and below-the-line content use the same creative approach and communicate consistent messages across all media.

Multi-Channel Marketing
The increasing importance of social media is focusing attention on communicating with customers though multiple channels, rather than relying on individual above-the-line or below-the-line channels. Marketers also recognize the importance of building dialog with customers, rather than marketing through one-way communications.

 

What Are the Different Types of Advertising?

Advertisers pay for advertising to accomplish a wide array of goals. Ad objectives generally boil down to long-term branding communication or short-term direct response advertising. Branding is about building and maintaining a reputation for your company that distinguishes it in the marketplace. Sales promos are short-term inducements to drive revenue or cash flow. Based on your company’s objectives, budget and target audience, you normally advertise through one or more types of media. Calculating your return on investment in dollars is difficult, but you need to establish measurable goals, such as a percentage increase in awareness, to evaluate success.

Broadcast Media
Television and radio are two traditional broadcast media long used in advertising. Television offers creative opportunities, a dynamic message and wide audience reach. It is typically the most expensive medium to advertise through, though. Because local affiliated stations normally serve a wide local audience, you also have to deal with waste when trying to target a small town marketplace. TV watchers normally have a negative attitude toward commercials and many have DVRs at their fingertips. Radio and TV both have fleeting messages, meaning they disappear once the commercial spot ends. Radio is relatively affordable for small businesses and allows for repetition and frequency. You don’t have the visual element of TV and you have to deal with a distracted audience, since most listeners are driving.

Print Media
Magazines and newspapers are the two traditional print media. Magazines offer a highly selective audience who is generally interested in ads closely related to the topic of the magazine. Visual imagery is also stronger in magazines than newspapers. You have little wasted since magazines are very niche and you can target a narrow customer segment. On the downside, magazines are costly and require long lead times, which limits timely promotions. They also have limited audience reach. Newspapers are very affordable for local businesses and allow you to target a geographic segment if you have a universal product or service. Newspapers are also viewed as a credible medium, which enhances ad acceptance. You can usually get an ad placed within a day or two of purchase. Declining circulation, a short shelf life and limited visual creativity are drawbacks.

Support Media
Support media include several options for message delivery than normally add to or expand campaigns delivered through more traditional media. Billboards, transits, bus benches, aerial, directories and trade publications are common support media. Each has pros and cons, but collectively, they offer ways to reach a wider audience in a local or regional market or to increase frequency of message exposure to targeted market segments.

Direct Marketing
Direct marketing is an interactive approach to advertising that has picked up in usage in the early 21st century. It includes direct mail, email and telemarketing. These are direct response efforts to create an ongoing dialogue or interaction with customers. Weekly or monthly email newsletters, for instance, allow you to keep your brand, products and other messages in front of prospects and customers. Telemarketing is a way to survey customers and offer new products, upgrades or renewals. Direct mail is the most common format of direct marketing where you send mailers or postcards to targeted customers promoting products, deals or promotions. Direct marketing has become more prominent because it allows for ease in tracking customer response rates and helps advertisers better measure return on investment.

Product Placement
Another newer advertising technique is product placement. This is where you offer compensation to a TV show, movie, video game or theme park to use your product while entertaining audiences. You could pay a TV show, for instance, to depict your product being used and discussed positive in a particular scene. This ad method is a way for companies to integrate ads with entertainment since customers have found ways to avoid messages delivered through more conventional media.

Internet
The Internet is used by online and offline companies to promote products or services. Banner ads, pop up ads, text ads and paid search placements are common forms. Banner, pop up and text ads are ways to present an image or message on a publisher’s website or on a number of websites through a third-party platform like Google’s Adwords program. Paid search placements, also known as cost-per-click advertising, is where you bid a certain amount to present your link and text message to users of search engines like Google and Yahoo!

Social Media
Businesses can also create different target groups, and send ads on social media platforms to users that would be most interested in their products and services. Targeting options can include targeting based on geographic location, buying tendencies, and other consumer behavior. One effective method of placing social media ads is known as retargeting, which focuses on website visitors that left without buying a product or service, or without signing up for some type of free offer like subscribing to a newsletter. Businesses can place a pixel on the visitor’s browser, and send targeted ads to that visitor as he or she browses other websites. Sponsored ads work in a similar way to retargeting, but the difference is that businesses pay to have these ads appear on specific websites that their target audience is likely to visit.

 

 

834 Benefits of Sales Promotion

A successful promotion has the ability to nurture relationships with consumers through retention and engagement. Promotions can often shape the characteristics of brands, for example, McDonald?s Monopoly board is something

 

 

INTRODUCTION OF SALES PROMOTION
Sales promotion consists of a diverse collection of incentive tools, mostly short term, designed to stimulated quicker and/or greater purchase of particular product/service or the trend. Sales promotion is a process of persuading of sales to potential customer to buy the product.
The topic is about the sales promotion activity that makes awareness of the product of the company. The topic itself describe that how to increase the sales growth of the company product and it is also about the make awareness to the customer about the company products.
Sales promotion plays a very important role in the company. So in the current context every company makes sales promotion in different ways like advertisement by media, news paper , magazine.
Sales promotion is an important component of a small medium and large business’s overall marketing strategy, along with advertising, public relations, and personal selling. The American Marketing Association (AMA) defines sales promotion as “media and non-media marketing pressure applied for a predetermined, limited period of time in order to stimulate trial, increase consumer demand, or improve product quality.” But this definition does not capture all the elements of modern sales promotion. One should add that effective sales promotion increases the basic value of a product for a limited time and directly stimulates consumer purchasing, selling effectiveness, or the effort of the sales force. It can be used to inform, persuade, and remind target customers about the business and its marketing mix. Some common types of sales promotion include samples, coupons, sweepstakes, contests, in-store displays, trade shows, price-off deals, premiums, and rebates.
Businesses can target sales promotions at three different audiences: consumers, resellers, and the company’s own sales force. Sales promotion acts as a competitive weapon by providing an extra incentive for the target audience to purchase or support one brand over another. It is particularly effective in spurring product trial and unplanned purchases.
Most marketers believe that a given product or service has an established perceived price or value, and they use sales promotion to change this price-value relationship by increasing the value and/or lowering the price. Compared to the other components of the marketing mix (advertising, publicity, and personal selling), sales promotion usually operates on a shorter time line, uses a more rational appeal, returns a tangible or real value, fosters an immediate sale, and contributes highly to profitability.
In determining the relative importance to place on sales promotion in the overall marketing mix, a small business should consider its marketing budget, the stage of the product in its life cycle, the nature of competition in the market, the target of the promotion, and the nature of the product. For example, sales promotion and direct mail are particularly attractive alternatives when the marketing budget is limited, as it is for many small businesses. In addition, sales promotion can be an effective tool in a highly competitive market, when the objective is to convince retailers to carry a product or influence consumers to select it over those of competitors. Similarly, sales promotion is often used in the growth and maturity stages of the product life cycle to stimulate consumers and resellers to choose that product over the competition—rather than in the introduction stage, when mass advertising to build awareness might be more important. Finally, sales promotion tends to work best when it is applied to impulse items whose features can be judged at the point of purchase, rather than more complex, expensive items that might require hands-on demonstration.
Back in 1950s, it was said that doing business without sales promotion is like winking at a girl in the dark; you know you what you are doing, but nobody else does. The message was: crowded scenario of multiple ads even winking in broad daylight goes unnoticed. Since everyone is sales promotion, the idea is to do it with innovation ‘Come on, turn on the light, it pays to sales promotion. Today, in this complex world amidst heavy rush or everything, having a densely.

Sales promotion is of immense utility both to large and small business. There can be no doubt that sales promotion efforts would result in creation of additional sales. All forms of promotion of sale of goods is in one way or the other, supported by extensive advertising campaign. It is not possible to imagine survival of any business, which is in the business of “make and sell” in the absence of advertising efforts. Advertising has extended its coverage to include non-business enterprises also e.g.. Public Water Works advertises the need to preserve precious water and to cultivate the habit of drinking clean water free from any form of pollution. Countless illustrations can be provided wherein non-business enterprises have recognised the importance of advertising and their use it as a tool to promote ideas and services.

Sales promotion is an economic activity and it generates employment. Thousands of men and women are directly or indirectly, employed in professional sales promotion. sales promotion is an economic proposition. People who invest their money in sales promotion anticipate positive results. Hence, sales promotion must be result-oriented. Every newspaper or magazine survives on the advertisements that it receives. sales promotion are definite source of revenue to the publishers. Because of the advertisements inserted in newspapers and magazines, they are sold at lower price, which can be afforded by the public. Advertising is of paramount importance because it creates better-informed public by making available innumerable publications at an affordable price. Considering the response that advertisements generate, it can be stated that “advertising does not cost too much”.
In older to cut down production cost per unit there is a need to increase the total sales turnover. When overall sales increase, production cost per unit is automatically slashed and more people buy the goods. Apart from towering production costs, advertising also pays for entertainment and education through use of media like radio and TV.
.
Consumer is the king in the market. He cannot be compelled to buy anything. At the most, he can be persuaded to patronize a certain brand. It is here that advertising plays a prominent role.
There is no standard format to be followed to make advertising liked by every person. Advertising is a creative field. Individual likes and dislikes determine success of advertising or its failure. Advertising scores over personal selling because it provides freedom of choice to the consumer. Decision to make purchases is independently arrived at by the consumers. No civilized society can record constant progress and ensure better standard of living to its people in the absence of information and education provided by advertising
CONSUMER PROMOTIONS
Consumer sales promotions are steered toward the ultimate product users—typically individual shoppers in the local market—but the same techniques can be used to promote products sold by one business to another, such as computer systems, cleaning supplies, and machinery. In contrast, trade sales promotions target resellers—wholesalers and retailers—who carry the marketer’s product. Following are some of the key techniques used in consumer-oriented sales promotions.
PRICE DEALS: A consumer price deal saves the buyer money when a product is purchased. The main types of price deals include discounts, bonus pack deals, refunds or rebates, and coupons. Price deals are usually intended to encourage trial use of a new product or line extension, to recruit new buyers for a mature product, or to convince existing customers to increase their purchases, accelerate their use, or purchase multiple units. Price deals work most effectively when price is the consumer’s foremost criterion or when brand loyalty is low.
Buyers may learn about price discounts either at the point of sale or through advertising. At the point of sale, price reductions may be posted on the package, on signs near the product, or in storefront windows. Many types of advertisements can be used to notify consumers of upcoming discounts, including fliers and newspaper and television ads.
Price discounts are especially common in the food industry, where local supermarkets run weekly specials. Price discounts may be initiated by the manufacturer, the retailer, or the distributor. For instance, a manufacturer may “pre-price” a product and then convince the retailer to participate in this short-term discount through extra incentives. For price reduction strategies to be effective, they must have the support of all distributors in the channel. Existing customers perceive discounts as rewards and often respond by buying in larger quantities.
Another type of price deal is the bonus pack or banded pack. When a bonus pack is offered, an extra amount of the product is free when a standard size of the product is bought at the regular price. This technique is routinely used in the marketing of cleaning products, food, and health and beauty aids to introduce a new or larger size. A bonus pack rewards present users but may have little appeal to users of competitive brands. A banded pack offer is when two or more units of a product are sold at a reduction of the regular single-unit price. Sometimes the products are physically banded together, such as in toothbrush and toothpaste offers.
A refund or rebate promotion is an offer by a marketer to return a certain amount of money when the product is purchased alone or in combination with other products. Refunds aim to increase the quantity or frequency of purchase, to encourage customers to “load up” on the product. This strategy dampens competition by temporarily taking consumers out of the market, stimulates the purchase of postponable goods such as major appliances, and creates on-shelf excitement by encouraging special displays. Refunds and rebates are generally viewed as a reward for purchase, and they appear to build brand loyalty rather than diminish it.
Coupons are legal certificates offered by manufacturers and retailers. They grant specified savings on selected products when presented for redemption at the point of purchase. Manufacturers sustain the cost of advertising and distributing their coupons, redeeming their face values, and paying retailers a handling fee. Retailers who offer double or triple the amount of the coupon shoulder the extra cost. Retailers who offer their own coupons incur the total cost, including paying the face value. In this way, retail coupons are equivalent to a cents-off deal.
Manufacturers disseminate coupons in many ways. They may be delivered directly by mail, dropped door to door, or distributed through a central location such as a shopping mall. Coupons may also be distributed through the media—magazines, newspapers, Sunday supplements, or free-standing inserts (FSI) in newspapers. Coupons can be inserted into, attached to, or printed on a package, or they may be distributed by a retailer who uses them to generate store traffic or to tie in with a manufacturer’s promotional tactic. Retailer-sponsored coupons are typically distributed through print advertising or at the point of sale. Sometimes, though, specialty retailers or newly opened retailers will distribute coupons door to door or through direct mail.
CONTESTS/SWEEPSTAKES: The main difference between contests and sweepstakes is that contests require entrants to perform a task or demonstrate a skill that is judged in order to be deemed a winner, while sweepstakes involve a random drawing or chance contest that may or may not have an entry requirement. At one time, contests were more commonly used as sales promotions, mostly due to legal restrictions on gambling that many marketers feared might apply to sweepstakes. But the use of sweepstakes as a promotional tactic has grown dramatically in recent decades, partly because of legal changes and partly because of their lower cost. Administering a contest once cost about $350 per thousand entries, compared to just $2.75 to $3.75 per thousand entries in a sweepstake. Furthermore, participation in contests is very low compared to sweepstakes, since they require some sort of skill or ability.
SPECIAL EVENTS: According to the consulting firm International Events Group (IEG), businesses spend over $2 billion annually to link their products with everything from jazz festivals to golf tournaments to stock car races. In fact, large companies like RJR Nabisco and Anheuser-Busch have special divisions that handle nothing but special events. Special events marketing offers a number of advantages. First, events tend to attract a homogeneous audience that is very appreciative of the sponsors. Therefore, if a product fits well with the event and its audience, the impact of the sales promotion will be high. Second, event sponsorship often builds support among employees—who may receive acknowledgment for their participation—and within the trade. Finally, compared to producing a series of ads, event management is relatively simple. Many elements of event sponsorship are prepackaged and reusable, such as booths, displays, and ads. Special events marketing is available to small businesses, as well, through sponsorship of events on the community level.
PREMIUM: A premium is tangible compensation that is given as incentive for performing a particular act—usually buying a product. The premium may be given for free, or may be offered to consumers for a significantly reduced price. Some examples of premiums include receiving a prize in a cereal box or a free garden tool for visiting the grand opening of a hardware store. Incentives that are given for free at the time of purchase are called direct premiums. These offers provide instant gratification, plus there is no confusion about returning coupons or box tops, or saving bar codes or proofs of purchase.
Other types of direct premiums include traffic builders, door openers, and referral premiums. The garden tool is an example of a traffic-builder premium—an incentive to lure a prospective buyer to a store. A door-opener premium is directed to customers at home or to business people in their offices. For example, a homeowner may receive a free clock radio for allowing an insurance agent to enter their home and listening to his sales pitch. Similarly, an electronics manufacturer might offer free software to an office manager who agrees to an on-site demonstration. The final category of direct premiums, referral premiums, rewards the purchaser for referring the seller to other possible customers.
Mail premiums, unlike direct premiums, require the customer to perform some act in order to obtain a premium through return mail. An example might be a limited edition toy car offered by a marketer in exchange for one or more proofs-of-purchase and a payment covering the cost of the item plus handling. The premium is still valuable to the consumer because they cannot readily buy the item for the same amount.

CONTINUITY PROGRAMS: Continuity programs retain brand users over a long time period by offering ongoing motivation or incentives. Continuity programs demand that consumers keep buying the product in order to get the premium in the future. Trading stamps, popularized in the 1950s and 1960s, are prime examples. Consumers usually received one stamp for every dime spent at a participating store. The stamp company provided redemption centers where the stamps were traded for merchandise. A catalog listing the quantity of stamps required for each item was available at the participating stores. Today, airlines’ frequent-flyer clubs, hotels’ frequent-traveler plans, retailers’ frequent-shopper programs, and bonus-paying credit cards are common continuity programs. When competing brands have reached parity in terms of price and service, continuity programs sometimes prove a deciding factor among those competitors. By rewarding long-standing customers for their loyalty, continuity programs also reduce the threat of new competitors entering a market.

SAMPLING: A sign of a successful marketer is getting the product into the hands of the consumer. Sometimes, particularly when a product is new or is not a market leader, an effective strategy is giving a sample product to the consumer, either free or for a small fee. But in order for sampling to change people’s future purchase decisions, the product must have benefits or features that will be obvious during the trial.
There are several means of disseminating samples to consumers. The most popular has been through the mail, but increases in postage costs and packaging requirements have made this method less attractive. An alternative is door-to-door distribution, particularly when the items are bulky and when reputable distribution organizations exist. This method permits selective sampling of neighborhoods, dwellings, or even people. Another method is distributing samples in conjunction with advertising. An ad may include a coupon that the consumer can mail in for the product, or it may include an address or phone number for ordering. Direct sampling can be achieved through prime media using scratch-and-sniff cards and slim foil pouches, or through retailers using special displays or a person hired to hand out samples to passing customers. Though this last technique may build goodwill for the retailer, some retailers resent the inconvenience and require high payments for their cooperation.
A final form of sample distribution deals with specialty types of sampling. For instance, some companies specialize in packing samples together for delivery to homogeneous consumer groups, such as newlyweds, new parents, students, or tourists. Such packages may be delivered at hospitals, hotels, or dormitories and include a number of different types of products.

 

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